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Schott, F., Isaksson, S., Larsson, E., Marone, F., Öhgren, C., Röding, M., . . . Raaholt, B. (2023). Structural formation during bread baking in a combined microwave-convective oven determined by sub-second in-situ synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Food Research International, 173, Article ID 113283.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural formation during bread baking in a combined microwave-convective oven determined by sub-second in-situ synchrotron X-ray microtomography
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2023 (English)In: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 173, article id 113283Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new concept has been developed for characterizing the real-time evolution of the three-dimensional pore and lamella microstructure of bread during baking using synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SRµCT). A commercial, combined microwave-convective oven was modified and installed at the TOMCAT synchrotron tomography beamline at the Swiss Light Source (SLS), to capture the 3D dough-to-bread structural development in-situ at the micrometer scale with an acquisition time of 400 ms. This allowed characterization and quantitative comparison of three baking technologies: (1) convective heating, (2) microwave heating, and (3) a combination of convective and microwave heating. A workflow for automatic batchwise image processing and analysis of 3D bread structures (1530 analyzed volumes in total) was established for porosity, individual pore volume, elongation, coordination number and local wall thickness, which allowed for evaluation of the impact of baking technology on the bread structure evolution. The results showed that the porosity, mean pore volume and mean coordination number increase with time and that the mean local cell wall thickness decreases with time. Small and more isolated pores are connecting with larger and already more connected pores as function of time. Clear dependencies are established during the whole baking process between the mean pore volume and porosity, and between the mean local wall thickness and the mean coordination number. This technique opens new opportunities for understanding the mechanisms governing the structural changes during baking and discern the parameters controlling the final bread quality. © 2023 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Baking, Bread, Convective, Image analysis, In-situ, Microwave, Oven, Synchrotron X-ray microtomography, Food products, Light sources, Microwave heating, Porosity, Quality control, Tomography, Baking technology, Convective heating, Image-analysis, Microwave-heating, Pore volume
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65961 (URN)10.1016/j.foodres.2023.113283 (DOI)2-s2.0-85166305869 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was funded by VINNOVA (Swedeńs Innovation Agency)[2019–02572], and additional internal RISE co-financing from 2020. Florian and Rajmund were financed by the Swedish Research Council [2019–03742]. Niklas gratefully acknowledges funding from the Swedish Research Council [2018–06378]. The computations and data handling were carried out under the following QIM-related projects: SNIC 2022/6–157 and LU 2022/2–22, which were enabled by resources provided by the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC) at LUNARC at Lund University, partially funded by the Swedish Research Council through grant agreement [2018–05973].

Available from: 2023-08-24 Created: 2023-08-24 Last updated: 2024-03-25Bibliographically approved
Oliveira, H., Raaholt, B. & Nunes, M. L. (2021). Semi-industrial development of nutritious and healthy seafood dishes from sustainable species. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 155, Article ID 112431.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Semi-industrial development of nutritious and healthy seafood dishes from sustainable species
2021 (English)In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 155, article id 112431Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to devise innovative, tailor-made, appealing, tasty and semi-industrialized dishes, using sustainable and under-utilized seafood species (bib, common dab, common carp, blue mussel and blue whiting), that can meet the specific nutritional and functional needs of children (8-10-years), pregnant women (20-40-years) and seniors (≥60-years). Hence, contests were organised among cooking schools from 6 European countries and the best recipes/dishes were reformulated, semi-industrially produced and chemically and microbiologically evaluated. The dishes intended for: (i) children and pregnant women had EPA + DHA and I levels that reached the target quantities, supporting the claim as “high in I”; and (ii) seniors were “high in protein” (24.8%-Soup_S and 34.0%-Balls_S of the energy was provided by proteins), “high in vitamin B12”, and had Na contents (≤0.4%) below the defined limit. All dishes reached the vitamin D target value. Sausages_C, Roulade_P, Fillet_P and Balls_S had a well-balanced protein/fat ratio. Roulade_P presented the highest n-3 PUFA/n-6 PUFA ratio (3.3), while Sausages_C the lowest SFA/UNS ratio (0.2). Dishes were considered safe based on different parameters (e.g. Hg-T, PBDEs, Escherichia coli). All represent dietary sources contributing to meet the reference intakes of target nutrients (33->100%), providing valuable options to overcome nutritional and functional imbalances of the three groups. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Children, Nutritional criteria, Pregnant women, Seafood dish, Seniors, Sustainable species
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-55661 (URN)10.1016/j.fct.2021.112431 (DOI)2-s2.0-85111335823 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: European Commission, EC; Funding details: Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, FCT; Funding details: Generalitat de Catalunya, SGR 1404; Funding details: Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, MICINN, CEX 2018-000794-S; Funding details: Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior, MCTES, UID/QUI/50006/2019, UIDB/04423/2020, UIDB/50006/2020, UIDP/04423/2020, UIDP/50006/2020; Funding details: Horizon 2020, 773400; Funding text 1: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement no. 773400 (SEAFOOD TOMORROW ). This work was also supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Project CEX 2018-000794-S ), the Generalitat de Catalunya (Consolidated Research Group Water and Soil Quality Unit 2017 SGR 1404) and Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)/Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior (MCTES) through national funds ( UID/QUI/50006/2019 , UIDB/50006/2020 , UIDP/50006/2020 , UIDB/04423/2020 and UIDP/04423/2020 ). The authors also thank FCT and the European Union's H2020 Research and Innovation Programme for funding through the project Systemic - An integrated approach to the challenge of sustainable food systems: adaptive and mitigatory strategies to address climate change and malnutrition. Sara Cunha also acknowledges FCT for the IF/01616/2015 contract. Biotage is acknowledged for providing SPE cartridges and Bekolut for the QuEChERS kits. This output reflects the views only of the author(s), and the European Union cannot be held responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.; Funding text 2: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement no. 773400 (SEAFOODTOMORROW). This work was also supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Project CEX 2018-000794-S), the Generalitat de Catalunya (Consolidated Research Group Water and Soil Quality Unit 2017 SGR 1404) and Funda??o para a Ci?ncia e a Tecnologia (FCT)/Minist?rio da Ci?ncia, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior (MCTES) through national funds (UID/QUI/50006/2019, UIDB/50006/2020, UIDP/50006/2020, UIDB/04423/2020 and UIDP/04423/2020). The authors also thank FCT and the European Union's H2020 Research and Innovation Programme for funding through the project Systemic - An integrated approach to the challenge of sustainable food systems: adaptive and mitigatory strategies to address climate change and malnutrition. Sara Cunha also acknowledges FCT for the IF/01616/2015 contract. Biotage is acknowledged for providing SPE cartridges and Bekolut for the QuEChERS kits. This output reflects the views only of the author(s), and the European Union cannot be held responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

Available from: 2021-08-09 Created: 2021-08-09 Last updated: 2023-05-10Bibliographically approved
Raaholt, B. (2020). 2 - Influence of food geometry and dielectric properties on heating performance. In: Development of Packaging and Products for Use in Microwave Ovens: Second Edition (pp. 73-93). Woodhead Publishing in Materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>2 - Influence of food geometry and dielectric properties on heating performance
2020 (English)In: Development of Packaging and Products for Use in Microwave Ovens: Second Edition, Woodhead Publishing in Materials , 2020, p. 73-93Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter, an introduction to microwave heating of foods and some commonly encountered phenomena in heating uniformity is given. The chapter is intended to help the reader make initial progress and to serve as a beginning for deeper understanding of microwave heating, hopefully resulting in improved heating results and well-designed products. The impact of dielectric properties as well as geometrical properties on the resulting heating is introduced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Woodhead Publishing in Materials, 2020
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45050 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-08-102713-4.00002-5 (DOI)978-0-08-102713-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-06-03 Created: 2020-06-03 Last updated: 2023-05-10Bibliographically approved
Raaholt, B. (2017). Continuous in-flow microwave processing for food preservation applications. In: 16th International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE 2017: . Paper presented at 16th International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE 2017, 18 September 2017 through 21 September 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous in-flow microwave processing for food preservation applications
2017 (English)In: 16th International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE 2017, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A pilot-scale process for continuous in-flow microwave processing of particulate pumpable foods, designed and implemented at RISE Research Institute of Sweden [1], was studied for heat treatment of a particulate, viscous model food at high temperature conditions at 2450 MHz. In this paper, the technology will be discussed as an alternative high-temperature short-time (HTST) processing method for a high-concentrated particulate model product. The technology combines TM 020 and TM 120 microwave mode heating. The rapidness in heating the product will be illustrated for selected time-temperature conditions after tubular microwave heating. The latter corresponds to the required microbiological inactivation, for a product intended for storage at ambient conditions or cool storage, respectively. As will be exemplified, the microwave HTST system studied results in large process flexibility. Additionally, it offers advantages in product quality.

Keywords
Food applications, Microwave high-temperature short-time (HTST) processing, Microwave preservation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38920 (URN)2-s2.0-85065882398 (Scopus ID)
Conference
16th International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE 2017, 18 September 2017 through 21 September 2017
Available from: 2019-06-10 Created: 2019-06-10 Last updated: 2023-05-10Bibliographically approved
Raaholt, B., Hamberg, L. & Isaksson, S. (2017). Continuous tubular microwave heating of particulate foods at high temperatures. The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy, 51(4), 259-285
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous tubular microwave heating of particulate foods at high temperatures
2017 (English)In: The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy, ISSN 0832-7823, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 259-285Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A pilot-scale process for continuous in-flow microwave processing of particulate pumpable foods, designed and implemented at RISE Agrifood and Bioscience, was evaluated for heat treatment of a particulate, viscous model food at high-temperature conditions at 2450 MHz. The microwave system has three consecutive cavities, one excited by the TM020 microwave mode that heats primarily in the centre of the tube, and two cavities fed by TM120 modes that heat primarily in the tube periphery. In this paper, combined TM020 and TM120 tubular microwave heating is evaluated as an alternative to high-temperature short-time (HTST) processing for a high-concentrated particulate model product. Rapidness in heating of the product was evaluated after tubular microwave heating for different time-temperature conditions, corresponding to the required microbiological inactivation for a model product intended for storage at ambient conditions. Moreover, the effects on product quality of the microwave heated model soup were investigated in terms of texture, piece integrity and colour. Microstructural analysis was used to gain an understanding of the effects of heating at a microscopic scale. It was found that the microwave-assisted HTST system results in large process flexibility. Additionally, it offers advantages in product quality in terms of piece integrity and texture.

Keywords
continuous process, heat rapidness, high-concentration large particulates, high-temperature short-time (HTST), Microwave in-flow heating, microwave-assisted HTST system, particulate foods, preservation, pumpable foods, tubular heating, Food storage, Heating, Microwave heating, Microwave tubes, Microwaves, Quality control, Wood preservation, High temperature, Microwave assisted, Thermal processing (foods)
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32817 (URN)10.1080/08327823.2017.1388942 (DOI)2-s2.0-85033664975 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Raaholt, B., Isaksson, S., Hamberg, L., Fhager, A. & Hamnerius, Y. (2016). Continuous tubular microwave heating of homogeneous foods: evaluation of heating uniformity. The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy, 50(1), 43-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous tubular microwave heating of homogeneous foods: evaluation of heating uniformity
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2016 (English)In: The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy, ISSN 0832-7823, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 43-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A pilot-scale process for continuous in-flow microwave processing of foods, designed and implemented at SP Food and Bioscience, was evaluated for heat treatment of a homogeneous model food for high-temperature short-time (HTST) conditions, at constant total input microwave power, at 2450 MHz. The microwave system has three consecutive cavities, one excited by the TM020 microwave mode that heats primarily in the tube centre, and two TM120 mode cavities that heat primarily in the tube periphery. The temperature uniformity of the homogeneous model food after microwave heating is here evaluated in terms of spatial distribution, for different set-ups of input microwave power in each cavity and for different order of the placement of the cavities, while maintaining the total input microwave power. The microwave heating uniformity is evaluated, based on measured and calculated radial temperature profiles. Combined TM020 and TM120 heating was found to result in more uniform heating by means of spatial temperature uniformity over the tube cross section. Furthermore, appropriately selected microwave power distribution between the centre and periphery heating cavities results in a stable heating profile in the studied food, that differs only about 10 °C or less between highest and lowest average values directly after microwave heating.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2016
Keywords
Microwave in-flow heating, continuous process, microwave tubular heating, pumpable food, microwave pasteurization, microwave-assisted HTST system, homogeneous foods
National Category
Other Physics Topics Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Food Engineering Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31310 (URN)10.1080/08327823.2016.1157318 (DOI)2-s2.0-84977501056 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-28 Created: 2017-09-28 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Raaholt, B. (2015). Applications of microwave heating of foods (ed.).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applications of microwave heating of foods
2015 (English)Report (Refereed)
Series
SP Rapport, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2015:38
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-5266 (URN)23948 (Local ID)978-91-7597-239-8 (ISBN)23948 (Archive number)23948 (OAI)
Note

Doctoral theses at Chalmers University of Technology New Series No. 3920 ISSN 0346-718X

Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07 Last updated: 2023-05-10Bibliographically approved
Wäppling Raaholt, B., Holtz, E. & Isaksson, S. (2014). Application of Microwave Technology in Food Preservation and Processing. In: Suvendu Bhattacharya (Ed.), Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies: (pp. 437-469). Chicago: John Wiley & Sons
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of Microwave Technology in Food Preservation and Processing
2014 (English)In: Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies / [ed] Suvendu Bhattacharya, Chicago: John Wiley & Sons , 2014, p. 437-469Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chicago: John Wiley & Sons, 2014
Keywords
microwave, applications, baking, drying, pasteurisation, sterilisation, tempering, defrosting, puffing, volume expansion, RF, HF, high-frequency, radio-frequency, food
National Category
Engineering and Technology Food Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-43269 (URN)
Available from: 2020-01-16 Created: 2020-01-16 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Raaholt, B., Isaksson, S. & Hamberg, L. (2013). A tubular microwave sterilisation or pasteurisation process for pumpable foods. In: 14th International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE 2013: . Paper presented at 14th International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE 2013, 17 September 2013 through 19 September 2013 (pp. 80-83). Edinburgh University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A tubular microwave sterilisation or pasteurisation process for pumpable foods
2013 (English)In: 14th International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE 2013, Edinburgh University Press , 2013, p. 80-83Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A pilot-scale process for continuous in-flow microwave heating of pumpable foods was designed, built and evaluated for heat treatment of high-concentrated particulate foods at temperatures up to 135°C and at the microwave frequency 2450 MHz. In this work, the temperature uniformity of a particulate model soup after microwave heating is evaluated for selected goal temperatures and holding times, and the heating up time to goal temperature is investigated. Furthermore, choice of radial dimensions of the tube is discussed, as well as strategies for achieving an improved microwave heating uniformity of the product, based on calculated radial temperature profile and electromagnetic field distribution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Edinburgh University Press, 2013
Keywords
Continuous process, Microwave in-flow heating, Pasteurisation, Pumpable foods, Sterilization, Tubular heating, Electromagnetic fields, Heating, Microwave heating, Microwaves, Pasteurization, Sterilization (cleaning), Thermal processing (foods), Electromagnetic field distribution, Holding time, Particulate foods, Pilot scale, Radial temperature profile, Temperature uniformity, Microwave tubes
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-47618 (URN)2-s2.0-85013845682 (Scopus ID)
Conference
14th International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE 2013, 17 September 2013 through 19 September 2013
Available from: 2020-09-01 Created: 2020-09-01 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Raaholt, B. & Isaksson, S. (2013). Combined microwave infrared/convective baking of bread. In: 14th International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE 2013: . Paper presented at 14th International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE 2013, 17 September 2013 through 19 September 2013 (pp. 35-39). Edinburgh University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combined microwave infrared/convective baking of bread
2013 (English)In: 14th International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE 2013, Edinburgh University Press , 2013, p. 35-39Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There are several advantages of industrial microwave-infrared baking of bread. Among these are: shorter process time, reduced energy consumption, less space requirement of baking equipment in the production facility and increased flexibility in production. Furthermore, the fast and efficient energy transfer due to volumetric microwave heating during baking, and due to infrared colouring of the bread, also means considerably reduced need for pre-heating, with resulting cost and time benefits. However, results are promising also when it comes to quality aspects. In this paper, this will be exemplified for two types of bread, which are microwave baked in a continuous pilot-scale oven and then coloured in a next pilot-scale oven section by infrared waves and/or convection. The resulting bread quality is presented in terms of colour and porosity for white tin loaves, and in terms of colour for rolls with seeds. The results are compared to the corresponding quality for conventionally baked bread. The comparison shows good agreement in quality between microwave-combination baked breads and conventionally baked breads. The results are promising also in terms of advantages for the bakery industry, from energy consumption, process time and flexibility aspects. The paper also presents electromagnetic modelling results for microwave baking of tin loaves. The latter results were valuable for the understanding of more uniform microwave baking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Edinburgh University Press, 2013
Keywords
Bread baking, Cost, Flexibility, Infrared colouring, Microwave baking, Modelling, Quality, Costs, Energy transfer, Energy utilization, Food products, Heating, Image quality, Microwave heating, Microwaves, Models, Ovens, Tin, Efficient energy transfer, Electromagnetic modelling, Increased flexibility, Production facility, Space requirements, Thermal processing (foods)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-47619 (URN)2-s2.0-85013779932 (Scopus ID)
Conference
14th International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE 2013, 17 September 2013 through 19 September 2013
Available from: 2020-09-01 Created: 2020-09-01 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6729-5710

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