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Publications (10 of 15) Show all publications
Sobiech, C., Andersson, K. & Enqvist, B. (2024). Independent assessment in trials with automated vehicles – Drive Sweden Policy Lab Case 6.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Independent assessment in trials with automated vehicles – Drive Sweden Policy Lab Case 6
2024 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

 The purpose of case 6 of the Drive Sweden Policy Lab 2023-25 is to examine the scope of an independent assessment in trials with automated road vehicles. The Swedish Transport Agency's regulations and general advice on permission to conduct trials with automated vehicles have recently been amended by adding a general advice that the applicant´s risk assessment should in certain cases be supplemented with a statement from an independent assessor regarding traffic safety (TSFS 2021:4, last amended by TSFS 2022:82). The regulation enables trials with automated vehicles in Sweden since 2017 and clarifies the circumstances under which it is reasonable safe to conduct trials with such vehicles. In the beginning of 2023, a policy lab was initiated with Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, and Austrian actors, which acts as a platform for collaborative policy development by relevant actors facing a common policy related challenge. Vehicle manufacturers, transport providers and operators, authorities, potential assessors, and applied research examine together the scope of independent assessments for trials with automated vehicles. The policy lab generates guidelines for independent assessments by clarifying and exemplifying the application and scope of such assessments in trials with automated vehicles. The policy lab considers knowledge and previous experiences from other transport sectors, from various countries with independent assessment already in place and from relevant EU and UNECE regulations, such as the requirements of independent assessment for the international market e.g., for a type-approval in the EU (ADS compliance assessment) or the proposed process for audits from the working group Validation Methods for Automated Driving as part of WP29. Drive Sweden Policy Lab case 6 is partly financed by Sweden´s innovation agency Vinnova, through its strategic innovation program Drive Sweden, and partly by the project parties.

Publisher
p. 37
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2024:12
Keywords
independent assessment, trials with automated vehicles, traffic safety, safety case, third-party assessment, audit, policy lab
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72321 (URN)978-91-89896-57-4 (ISBN)
Funder
VinnovaSwedish Research Council Formas
Note

The SIPs are financed by Sweden's innovation agency Vinnova, Formas, a research council for sustainable development, and the Energy Agency. Lindholmen Science Park AB hosts Drive Sweden.This project is partly financed by Vinnova through Drive Sweden, partly by the parties within Drive Sweden Policy Lab case 6.

Available from: 2024-03-13 Created: 2024-03-13 Last updated: 2024-03-13Bibliographically approved
Andersson, K., Hellström, A.-K. & Lundahl, J. (2023). Challenges and opportunities with the EU Taxonomy Regulation– with focus on chemical safety and usage in complex products.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges and opportunities with the EU Taxonomy Regulation– with focus on chemical safety and usage in complex products
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The use of Policy Lab processes has been growing in Sweden and other countries to accelerate the adaptation of regulations to emerging technologies. Policy Lab facilitates active collaboration between relevant authorities, companies, and stakeholders through interactive and iterative methods based on Design Thinking principles. This approach bridges the gap between the legislative domain responsible for developing regulatory frameworks and the innovative companies that create solutions for emerging markets using new technologies and opportunities. In our study, we applied Policy Lab processes to the EU Taxonomy Regulation to identify challenges and opportunities related to chemical safety and usage for manufacturers of complex products. The EU Taxonomy Regulation, along with its delegated acts, represent a serious effort to establish standardized sustainability reporting within EU. However, it is still in its early stages and lacks maturity. Moreover, certain ambiguities within the regulation currently prevent a comprehensive comparison of companies due to the development of other legislations. Addressing these gaps depends on the future development of, for example, REACH. Our conclusion is that the EU Taxonomy Regulation is part of a larger “movement” that reflects the policymakers’ intentions. This intention also includes increased data sharing at a significantly different level compared to current practices. In the long run, the shift will enable authorities to access the data and develop new legislations. Our specific focus was on the objective of pollution prevention and control regarding the use and presence of hazardous substances listed in Appendix C of the EU Taxonomy Regulation. According to Appendix C, activities must not lead to the manufacture, placing on the market or use of listed substances, whether on their own, in mixture or in articles. Regarding listed substances, reference is made to existing EU legislation that regulates hazardous substances within the EU. The most challenging aspect in Appendix C is point (g), which aims to identify substances, whether alone, in mixtures, or in articles, that meet the criteria set out in Article 57 of REACH but are not yet included in the Candidate list. Our workshops, interviews, and literature review confirmed that the main challenge in meeting the criteria of Appendix C, specifically point (g) is the need to enhance transparency and traceability throughout supply chains. Overcoming these challenges requires addressing barriers, such as the lack of a harmonized regulatory framework across the value chain, the need for faster identification and restriction of hazardous substances, and the reinforcement of stronger enforcement measures. The enabling of full declaration of the hazardous properties and functions of the substances, while considering the balance between information disclosure and protecting trade secrets, would reduce the need for extensive tracking of substance of very high concern along the value chain. To improve communication along the value chain and identify data gaps while protecting trade secrets, workshop participants have proposed the use of a user-friendly interface based on traffic light scenario. This interface would serve as a filter mechanism, allowing product manufacturers to establish specific criteria for material suppliers to respond to. The objective is to enhance communication, establish criteria, and effectively identify data gaps. While the SCIP database ensures accessibility of information on articles containing substances from the Candidate List above 0.1 w/w%, it is limited to hazardous substances on that list. This means that hazardous substances not listed in the Candidate List may not be covered by the database. The EU Commission has proposed the implementation of a digital product passport to enhance information sharing about products and their supply chain, including substances of concern. Our study is conducted under the Mistra SafeChem program, where screening tools for hazard and exposure assessment of substances are currently being developed. These tools aim to provide screening data for direct decision-making based on the Defined Approach (DA). These screening tools have the potential to contribute to filling data gaps during the early design phases of complex products, particularly when screening for multiple material alternatives.

Publisher
p. 26
Series
MISTRA SafeChem ; D2.1.3
Keywords
Policy Lab; Sustainable reporting; EU Taxonomy Regulation; Complex products, Hazardous substances
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66706 (URN)978-91-89757-98-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-09-11 Created: 2023-09-11 Last updated: 2024-02-06Bibliographically approved
Andersson, K., Noreland, D., Lundahl, J. & Eriksson, A. (2023). Geostängslade BK4-transporter vid bropassager och på tjälade vägar.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geostängslade BK4-transporter vid bropassager och på tjälade vägar
2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Geofenced heavy trucks to protect bridges at crossings allowing higher weight on frozen roads Winter is our friend. When the road body is deep frozen it can handle more weight than during the rest of the year. However, the bridges are not affected by the cold weather, and they are therefore still vulnerable to increased loads. How can we allow increased loads on frozen roads while ensuring protection of the bridges? In this report, we share our insights from a project with the idea of using geofencing to protect the bridges. The geofencing technology ensures that the truck drives at a lower speed over the bridge and the bridge can withstand loads up to 74 tons since decreased speed reduces dynamic loads. If the road keeper can get guarantees that all heavy trucks drive at a low speed over the bridge, heavier traffic can be accommodated. This technology would of course also be beneficial to use across bridges in Europe regardless of the climate. ' The project “Frozen roads and 74 tons”, paid by the Swedish Transport Administration, consisted of three parts. One part was a pilot study during winter 22/23 demonstrating trucks from AB Volvo and Scania loaded with 74 tons using geofencing when the trucks passed over weak bridges. A speed limit, i.e. 50 km/h, was imposed in a zone around each bridge, whose coordinates were stored in the digital map accessible through the trucks’ Fleet Management System. Two different geofencing technologies were tested: on the one hand Scania’s system with “active” geofencing, where the truck was programmed to maintain the allowed speed over the bridge and calculated and implemented this itself (the driver could, however, override this by pushing the gas pedal to the floor); on the other hand AB Volvo’s system with “passive” geofencing, where the driver received a warning message when approaching the zone and would then slow down if necessary. The drivers were interviewed before and after the pilot about their experience. The results from the pilot showed that if the technology is verified, the truck will do the right thing and is on the right road network when the technology is activated. The drivers also liked geofencing. Geofences thus work in practice. The second part of the project was about quantifying the societal benefits of using geofencing. More efficient planning, control and follow-up can lower costs, reduce environmental impact, and increase traffic safety. Calculations in the project show that about 12 percent of timber transports in Norrland use frozen roads. They can benefit from the technology and if the technology is introduced, the industry would make savings of the equivalent of SEK 15 million / year and reduced energy use equivalent to 280 cubic meter diesel. At national level, this corresponds to an energy efficiency potential of 0.12 percent. The third part of the project was about policy and regulation. Can we use the current legislation, or do we need new legislation to scale the use of geofencing across bridges? How can we ensure compliance? How can we share data? How can we handle EU trade barriers? In the report, we have suggestions for policy and legislation to implement the geofencing technology to protect sensitive bridges. Our analysis shows that it is possible with today's regulations for an authority to introduce regulations on geofences. Such rules should preferably be based on functional requirements and a system of self-monitoring.

Publisher
p. 53
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:87
Keywords
intelligent access, abnormal vehicles, high capacity transport, geofencing, bridges, frozen roads, timber transports, forest industry, transport efficiency, policy lab, regulatory sandbox
National Category
Agricultural Science, Forestry and Fisheries
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67467 (URN)978-91-89821-60-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-10-02 Created: 2023-10-02 Last updated: 2023-10-02Bibliographically approved
Rylander, D., Andersson, M. & Andersson, K. (2023). On the viability of autonomous follower truck convoys. In: 15th ITS European Congress, Lisbon, Portugal, 22-24 May-2023: . Paper presented at 15th ITS European Congress, Lisbon, Portugal, 22-24 May-2023. , Article ID Paper ID 51.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the viability of autonomous follower truck convoys
2023 (English)In: 15th ITS European Congress, Lisbon, Portugal, 22-24 May-2023, 2023, article id Paper ID 51Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Autonomous follower truck convoy (AFTC) is a concept that addresses the major shortage of truck drivers and increasing transport costs. The AFTC concept can be described as a vehicle convoy concept consisting of two or more vehicles where the first, lead vehicle has a human driver and where the following vehicles in the convoy are driverless. The argument is made that this technology is less technically complex than single autonomous vehicles and targets higher economic values compared to driver-assisted platooning functions. The contribution of this paper is a viability study of the AFTC concept. The conclusions from the study are that the concept viability depends on the continuous evolvement of three main factors. The emergence of autonomous capabilities, legal frameworks, and logistics actors’ interest in adapting current processes and infrastructure to meet the operational limitations of the concept.

Keywords
Autonomous vehicles, platooning, platooning autonomous function, autonomous truck convoy
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68673 (URN)
Conference
15th ITS European Congress, Lisbon, Portugal, 22-24 May-2023
Available from: 2023-12-21 Created: 2023-12-21 Last updated: 2024-05-28Bibliographically approved
Andersson, K., Burden, H., Carlgren, L., Lundahl, J., Schnurr, M., Sobiech, C., . . . Thidevall, N. (2023). RISE Policylabb – de första fem åren.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>RISE Policylabb – de första fem åren
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2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this report, we have compiled our learnings and experiences of working with Policy Lab. Policy Labs have come about as an answer to the question "Can you work with policy and regulatory development in a better way than today?". Our answer to the question is a yes. Our hope with the report is that others will become interested and start their own Policy Lab. Abroad, there are many Policy Labs, but in Sweden there are only a few, which is why we believe there is room for more. There is not a given way to work with Policy Labs once and for all, but each Policy Lab is unique based on its context. Sweden's innovation agency Vinnova defines Policy Labs as follows: "Policy Labs can be explained as a group of actors with different competencies who want to develop a regulatory framework. In the Policy Lab, they use a set of user-centric methods and competencies to test, experiment, and learn in policy development."1 In our Policy Lab, we have worked in various research projects to: 1. analyse challenges/problems that arise between innovations, technology, market, and regulations, 2. develop one or more workable solutions and 3. interact with relevant actors to determine the next steps. What distinguishes our Policy Lab is that we never “own” the issue or solution. We must therefore always work with other actors who can take the results further. Our goal is to enable and skill people. This means that for us it is important to work concretely with real problems and needs owners and preferably test different solutions. We focus on the here and now perspective and not on what the future will look like in 10 years. It is about taking the next step forward towards the future, not creating the best rule, but instead creating the next rule. We also work consistently agile and use design as a method for problem solving. This means that the way we organize our work in the Policy Lab is circular and not linear. When it comes to using design as a method for problem solving, we use the concepts of "design thinking" and "double diamond". For us, it is also important that the members of the Policy Lab have different backgrounds and skills depending on what is needed in the individual project....

Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:20
Keywords
Policy Lab, policy development, phase problem, innovation, regulatory sandbox, design thinking, double diamond
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64091 (URN)978-91-89757-63-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-02-27 Created: 2023-02-27 Last updated: 2024-01-05Bibliographically approved
Andersson, K. (2022). Autonoma leveransfordon – vad är de för sorts fordon och har det någon betydelse?.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autonoma leveransfordon – vad är de för sorts fordon och har det någon betydelse?
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Autonomous delivery vehicles – what kind of vehicles are they and does it matter? The project GLAD – Goods deliveries during the last mile of self-driving vehicles explores how tomorrow's small autonomous delivery vehicles (ADV) could operate in the transport system. The goal of the GLAD project is to develop knowledge about the needs and challenges of such vehicles in Sweden before they are in real operation. In the project, there are several work packages that work with different challenges in relation to ADV. To explore these issues, the project has developed a prototype of an ADV, which is based on a vehicle which today is classified as a three-wheeled moped. But designed as an ADV it could be a different kind of vehicle. One result from one of the work packages in the project is that ADVs driving on public roads should maintain the same speed as other traffic to avoid critical traffic situations. This means that ADVs should be able to drive at a maximum speed of 70 km/h. Another requirement is that the ADVs should be able of carrying a load of 500 kg. These requirements are a conclusion from interviews with drivers of small manually driven delivery vehicles about how they experience today's traffic situations, from which type of road they use and how they use their vehicles. The purpose of this report is to identify obstacles and opportunities from a regulatory perspective to implement ADVs in Sweden in a safe way. Rules that may affect the development of ADVs are, for example, whether they are covered by the Machinery Directive or whether they should be type approved. Other rules concern license plates, motor liability insurance, where the vehicles may be driven and driving license requirements. The aim of the legislations is to create a safe vehicle to use. After a review of existing regulations, it is closest at hand that future ADVs, based on the requirements set in the project, are classified as a 4-wheel heavy motorcycle for the transport of goods. The vehicle also needs a type-approval. It can be argued that an ADV with that weight and speed will have a lot to prove from a safety perspective in a type-approval process and that a market introduction is therefore further away in time. If the speed requirements are lowered instead i.e., maximum of 30 km/h, it could be classified as a motor tool. The advantage of motor tools is that these must be CE-marked by the manufacturer, which in turn means that they have a shorter time to market because the process does not involve a type-approval agency.

Publisher
p. 22
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:100
Keywords
autonomous delivery vehicles, regulation
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60133 (URN)978-91-89711-44-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-09-21 Created: 2022-09-21 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Andersson, K. (2022). Legala hinder och möjligheter för obemannade off-peak leveranser.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Legala hinder och möjligheter för obemannade off-peak leveranser
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

I projektet Hållbara & Integrerade urbana Transport System - HITS2024 har det bl.a. arbetats med att testa och demonstrera off-peak leveranser. Med off-peak leveranser avses förenklat leveranser som sker under de timmar på dygnet då det råder lågtrafik t.ex. nattetid. I projektet har HAVI levererat varor till en restaurang nattetid i Stock-holm. Detta har även demonstrerats i ett tidigare projekt kallat Eccentric. Skillnaden mellan de olika projekten är att i det äldre projektet fanns personal på plats i restau-rangen och tog emot varorna. I HITS2024 projektet fanns det inte någon personal på plats i restaurangen för att ta emot varorna. Båda projekten visar att det är praktiskt genomförbart att leverera varor off-peak och att det bidrar till en ökad transport-effektivitet. Jämfört med att leverera varor i rusningstid var tidsbesparingen ca 30 % för transpor-tören med off-peak leveranser i Eccentric projektet. Eccentric projektet visade även att effektivitetsvinsterna var ojämnt fördelade. Mottagaren (köparen) av varorna gjorde marginella effektivitetsvinster. För avsändaren (säljaren) redovisades inga effektivitets-vinster alls. I HITS2024 projektet ställde vi oss frågan - givet de stora effektivitets-vinster en transportör gör med off-peak leveranser - varför görs inte detta redan i stor skala? Kan det finnas något inom juridiken som hindrar utvecklingen av off-peak leve-ranser? Finns det rent av möjligheter inom juridiken som skulle kunna användas för att driva på utvecklingen mot fler off-peak leveranser? Syftet med den här rapporten är således att visa på legala hinder och möjligheter med (delvis) obemannade off-peak leveranser. Frågan kan bli än mer aktuell i en framtida värld med autonoma fordon som utför obemannade leveranser.

Publisher
p. 31
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:56
Keywords
Transport law, off-peak delivery, domestic road transport
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58990 (URN)978-91-89561-96-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-04-12 Created: 2022-04-12 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Sobiech, C. & Andersson, K. (2022). Möjligheter och hinder för användning av kameror i busstrafik.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Möjligheter och hinder för användning av kameror i busstrafik
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2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Possibilities and obstacles for the use of cameras in bus traffic The purpose of this part of the Drive Sweden Policy Lab (DSPL) 2021/22 is to explore opportunities and challenges regarding camera surveillance to increase traffic safety and usage of data for a more sustainable, efficient and connected society. Overall aim of DSPL is to explore how technology and service development relate to the existing policies for future mobility services, to show the need for changes in regulations as well as to propose solutions. The project is partly financed by Sweden´s innovation agency Vinnova, through its strategic innovation program Drive Sweden, and partly by the project parties. Key questions in this part of the project are how to use data from cameras and other sensors collected by public transport, in particular which use cases can be applied and demonstrated already now and which areas have further potential? How do we manage risks to personal integrity and which partners need to be involved as well as how need policies and regulations be adapted to continue the technological development so that the use cases can become reality in the future? Within the framework of the subproject, use cases for outward-facing front cameras in buses and a permanently mounted traffic camera in Barkarby/Järfälla municipality are identified and demonstrated. Information from cameras and other sensors could be used for monitoring the traffic environment to support traffic management in increasing accessibility of public transport and safety today and for future autonomous operations. In workshops and interviews with the project we map opportunities and obstacles that exist for the use of cameras and other sensors in bus traffic. In summary, our subproject shows that existing legislation allows cameras within a narrow area of use for public transport, namely the situation when a private actor uses a camera where only aggregated anonymised data leaves the camera. To apply this on a larger scale, technology is not an obstacle to progress. Yet, what we need is to improve public acceptance for the technology, in particular a better understanding of the possibilities of new cameras and its ability to keep personal integrity intact, to establish business models and actor collaborations for usage of the data, as well as a legislation that opens up for more use cases and is faster when it comes to permission processes.

Publisher
p. 37
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:101
Keywords
Bus camera; traffic camera; public transport; camera surveillance act; data protection regulation; edge computing
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60092 (URN)978-91-89711-45-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-09-08 Created: 2022-09-08 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Andersson, K. (2022). Regelverk för datadelning inom citylogistik: nulägesanalys.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regelverk för datadelning inom citylogistik: nulägesanalys
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Almost all data sharing regulations have origins from the EU. At EU level, three trends can be identified for data sharing. The first trend is that data sharing more and more is regulated by legislation. Current regulations are being amended and many new regulations are underway within the EU. Data sharing legislations are thus in an expansive phase. There are also many reasons why the EU believes that a certain regulatory framework is needed, such as: • Information security: Historically, information security has generated a large amount of activity in the field of regulatory framework. This includes, for example, cyber security and preventing data breaches. • Human health: Human health is also a reason to regulate data sharing. Examples of regulations in this area are the GDPR and sharing of sensitive personal data. • Consumer protection: There are also regulations aimed at strengthening consumer protection and ensuring that, for example, digital services are safe for consumers to share data in. • A free and efficient internal market: For the EU, it is important to create an internal market for data sharing. Many regulations are aimed at ensuring that SMEs can compete with large companies. Example of legislation in this area is the Platform Regulation. • Increased innovation power: For the EU, it is also important to increase innovation capacity in the internal market. One way is to protect innovations through, for example, copyright and trade secrets rules. • Increased transparency and trust: To create an internal market, people and companies also need to feel safe sharing data. Example of legislation within this area is the proposed Data Governance Act. • Fundamental rights and freedoms: Finally, the EU is reassessing in many regulatory frameworks in terms of respect of fundamental human rights and freedoms. Examples of regulations in this area are the GDPR and the e-Privacy regulation. The EU is also working on developing a code on this theme. The code shall guide the future work on the develop of new legislation. The second trend is for the EU to encourage industry organizations to develop voluntary rules on data sharing (code of conduct) to accelerate the creation of an internal market for data sharing. An example of this is the Code of Conduct for sharing agricultural data in agreements. The Free Flow of non-personal data regulation would also like to see industry organizations develop principles for data sharing. The third trend is that the EU would like to see us all make more data publicly available or that we donate data, both from authorities and individuals (open data and altruism). Examples of this are the Open Data Directive and the forthcoming Data Governance Act. In this lies a conflict of interest between information security and open data that is not easy to solve. The challenge lies in the fact that each individual dataset itself does not have to reveal anything sensitive. However, if many datasets are added together, aggregated data can reveal too much. The EU is also interested in data sharing for certain sectors, of which vehicles and mobility is an area that is becoming more and more regulated in terms of data sharing. Here, a lot of new regulations are expected that will have a major impact on the sector, both in terms of vehicle development but also in terms of the development of new business models. The trend is towards vehicle manufacturers being increasingly forced to share data with authorities. When it comes to logistics, the pressure from new legislation about data sharing is not as clear. The existing legislation is more about the safe distribution of goods in a crisis or regarding sharing data from certain goods e.g., tobacco. What problems does the EU address in its mobility and vehicle regulations? • Human health: Compared to the general regulatory framework, there is a clear emphasis on human health and data sharing in the regulations. It is both about data sharing related to air quality but also road safety. • Consumer protection: There are also regulations aimed at strengthening consumer protection, e.g., for manufacturers to inform consumers about how much exhaust fumes a particular vehicle emits so that the consumer can make an informed choice based on this aspect between different manufacturers. • A free functioning efficient internal market: Examples of legislation in this area are the access of independent branded workshops to data from connected vehicles to increase competition. At EU level, there are several regulatory frameworks in the pipeline that will have a major impact on what we want to explore in our project. In the HITS2024 project, we want to explore and test efficient city logistics based on different vehicle concepts and logistics solutions. At EU level, a forthcoming e-Privacy Regulation is being discussed. The regulation will dictate how data from vehicles is allowed to be transfer to a cloud solution i.e., the connection as such. The e-Privacy Regulation is closely related to the GDPR, but there are also differences between these regulations. The GDPR accepts consent and balancing of interests to collect personal data while the e-Privacy Regulation only accepts consent (at the time of writing). The challenge for the automotive industry, for example, is that an autonomous vehicle can only collect personal data based on balancing interests because it is not doable to work with consent. However, if the e-Privacy Regulation in its current state is approved, the data will not be allowed to leave the vehicle because there is no consent. Another challenge is the upcoming AI Act. The AI Act distinguishes between technologies that already have an international regulatory framework for, e.g., type approval of a truck and technology where only the EU regulates the issue, e.g., machines. But a vehicle consists of many different “parts” and not all parts are type approved. How do you fit different technologies and different legislation together in an autonomous truck? In the logistics area, the upcoming Data Act can be of great importance as it will be about data sharing between companies. Until now, coordination between different data regulations has not always been optimal. The same phenomenon has been regulated in different regulations. There is a risk that different regulations in the future will find it difficult to co-exist with each other. How will, for example, GDPR, e-Privacy regulation and Data Act work together in a vehicle and logistics context? Developments in this area need to be followed.

Publisher
p. 42
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:57
Keywords
logistic, mobility, data sharing, policy, regulation
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59108 (URN)978-91-89561-97-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-04-19 Created: 2022-04-19 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Andersson, K., Burden, H., Amanuel, M. D., Stenberg, S. & Thidevall, N. (2021). Fordonsdata till allmänhetens nytta - geofencing och affärsmodeller.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fordonsdata till allmänhetens nytta - geofencing och affärsmodeller
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2021 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Fordonsdata kan i framtiden vara till stor nytta för myndigheter på olika sätt. Än så länge samlar myndigheter in fordonsdata i begränsad omfattning. Det kan t.ex. handla om att genom offentlig upphandling pröva nya sätt för att kontrollera kvaliteten på utförd snöröjning. Trots att det finns ett intresse från både privata och offentliga aktörer att genomföra affärer kring fordonsdata är det ändå svårt för marknaden att ta fart. 

Frågan om hur fordonsdata kan kommersialiseras med offentliga aktörer som köpare har därför undersökts inom Drive Sweden Policy Lab i samarbete med CeViss-projektet (Cloud enhanced cooperative traffic safety using vehicle sensor data). CeViss-projektet har undersökt smarta kameror och hur de bl.a. kan användas för att varna andra förare för vilda djur vid vägen eller informera SOS Alarm om hur det ser ut vid en olycksplats. 

Förutsättningarna för lyckad kommersialisering kan sammanfattas under tre rubriker - affären, tekniken och juridiken. Vi ser att affären ligger i förmåga att erbjuda aggregerade data där olika datamängder korsbefruktas och därmed skapar ett större värde än de ingående datamängderna besitter var för sig. Kommersiella aktörer pekar på att rollen att aggregera data, eller förädla den, är mest intressant, eftersom det innebär en möjlighet att utveckla tjänster. En sådan tjänst förutsätter tillgång till en säker uppkoppling och överföring. Det är också resurskrävande att förädla data och styra rätt överföring, liksom att se över, anpassa och ta fram avtal som gör korsbefruktning av data och överföring av rätt data juridiskt möjlig. Här spelar individens integritet kontra samhällets behov av data en stor roll. Det är inte heller klart vilket behov aktörer inom olika samhällssektorer har av fordonsdata, samt hur dessa kommer att få tag i fordonsdata. 

Utmaningen för industrin ligger i att våga lita på att det finns en hållbar affär med myndigheten i längden, dvs. att det finns en tillräckligt stor betalningsvilja från samhällets sida även när data anses samhällskritisk viktigt. För att främja kommersialisering är det bra att börja med ett specifikt utvalt område för att utarbeta processer, avtal, tekniklösningar, affärs-modeller och så vidare. 

Geofencing hade kunnat vara en möjlighet att skapa de avgränsningar som behövs för en första affär, samtidigt som det skulle skapa tydlighet om var och när data samlas in från fordon. En sådan avgränsning hade också kunnat tjäna som en regulatorisk sandlåda för att utvärdera möjligheten till avtal som är hållbara över tid, det vill säga där det är rimligt att inom vissa gränser använda data på nya sätt eller för nya syften. 

Rapporten avslutas med en sammanställning av geofencing och datadelning ur ett juridiskt perspektiv samt en beskrivning av Drive Sweden Policy Lab. 

Publisher
p. 31
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2021:12
Keywords
Policy lab, avtal, fordonsdata, datadelning, integritet, tvång, geostaket
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52176 (URN)978-91-89167-95-7 (ISBN)
Projects
Drive Sweden Policy Lab
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-04813
Available from: 2021-02-02 Created: 2021-02-02 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8883-0804

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