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  • Gao, J.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yang, W.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    El-Zohry, A. M.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Prajapati, G. K.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fang, Y.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dai, J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hao, Y.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leandri, V.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Svensson, Per H.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Yta, process och formulering. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Furó, I.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Boschloo, G.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lund, T.
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Kloo, L.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Light-induced electrolyte improvement in cobalt tris(bipyridine)-mediated dye-sensitized solar cells2019Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 7, nr 33, s. 19495-19505Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium-ion-free tris(2,2′-bipyridine) Co(ii/iii)-mediated electrolytes have previously been proposed for long-term stable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Such redox systems also offer an impressive DSSC performance improvement under light soaking exposure, manifested by an increase in photocurrent and fill factor without the expense of decreasing photovoltage. Kinetic studies show that charge transfer and ion diffusion at the electrode/electrolyte interface are improved due to the light exposure. Control experiments reveal that the light effect is unambiguously associated with electrolyte components, [Co(bpy)3]3+ and the Lewis-base additive tert-butylpyridine (TBP). Electrochemical and spectroscopic investigation of the [Co(bpy)3]3+/TBP mixtures points out that the presence of TBP, which retards the electrolyte diffusion, however causes an irreversible redox reaction of [Co(bpy)3]3+ upon light exposure that improves the overall conductivity. This discovery not only provides a new strategy to mitigate the typical Jsc-Voc trade-off in Co(ii/iii)-mediated DSSCs but also highlights the importance of investigating the photochemistry of a photoelectrochemical system. 

  • Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Rietveld, Gert
    VSL, Netherlands.
    CIGRE Science & Enginering, Volume No.15, October 2019: Innovation in the Power Systems industry2019Ingår i: CIGRE Science & Engineering, ISSN 2426-1335, Vol. 15, s. 85-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Losses of HVDC converter stations need to be accurately quantified to support evaluation of bids for such systems and to underpin efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At present, these losses are estimated, based on loss calculations for individual converter components, and no reliable method exists to measure the actual HVDC converter station loss as difference between power on the AC- and DC-side of the station. The necessary requirements for such a measurement are investigated in this study, and a tentative design of a suitable loss measuring setup is explored. This approach is a useful alternative for those cases where a direct measurement of losses via a temporary connection with two converters operating in back-to-back mode cannot be made.

  • Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Bergman, Allan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Jönsson, Bengt
    ABB AB, Sweden.
    Rietveld, Gert
    VSL Nederlands Metrologisch Instituut, Netherlands.
    Sauzay, Mathieu
    JST transformateurs, France.
    Walmsley, Jonathan
    GE Power, UK.
    Sund, John Bjarne
    MSC EE Transformer Consultant, Norway.
    Estimating Uncertainty in Loss Measurement of Power Transformers2019Ingår i: ISH 2019, International Sympsoium on High Voltage Engineering, Budapest, Hungary, August 26-30, 2019., 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Eco-design directive issued by the European Commission has led to re-quirements on efficiency of power transformers. In the case of large power transformers used in grid applications, serious problems are encountered in establishing how reliable the loss measurements are. An effort is currently on-going within IEC to produce a documentary standard on “Rules for the determination of uncertainties in the measurement of the losses of power transformers”. An IEC standard should be clear and easy to understand by all users in the industry. Background theory and material, whilst necessary for understanding, is not required for the day-to-day application of the standard. This paper presents a more detailed background and theory on the measure-ment of transformer losses and how to quantify precision. The authors are all members of the IEC maintenance team working with the standard.

  • Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Testing of self-supporting laminated glass balustrades2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The work carried out within Task 2 Experimental work of the ÅForsk funded project "Structural safety of glass components" is presented in this report. The main goal of this project was to improve the understanding about the structural safety of self-supporting glass components. In particular, the results of the project intended to extend the current knowledge about the effect of impact and related testing methods regarding the safety of glass structures.

    Static and impact tests were conducted on a self-supporting glass balustrade with point-fixings. The laminated glass consisted of two 10 mm thick layers of laminated glass and a 0.76 mm thick interlayer made of EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate). A static line load was cyclically applied to the top of the specimen to gain an understanding of the static behaviour of the glass structure and to minimize the settlement in the structure prior to applying impact loading. The specimen was subsequently subjected to dynamic loading by impact tests based on EN 12600 (pendulum impact) with different drop heights until attaining failure. The dynamic structural response of the glass balustrade was analysed by three-dimensional Digital Image Correlation (3D-DIC). This measurement technique made it possible to directly relate the measurement of any point to the specimen and to study the deformed 3D shape in detail during the impact test. The FE-analysis (FEA) conducted using SJ Mepla was found to correlate rather well with the dynamic test results particularly up to the initial peak displacement.

  • Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Att hantera brandrisker med Li-jonbatterier i fordon2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Efterfrågan på elfordon fortsätter öka över hela världen. Då elfordonen blir vanligare kommer även olyckor med dessa fordon öka. En krock eller brandincident riskerar skada litiumjonbatteriet, vilket innebär nya risker för passagerare, räddningstjänst och andra som är involverade i efterhanteringen. I projektet har riktlinjer och rekommendationer tagits fram för hantering av krockskadade elfordon samt brandsäkerhet vid laddning. Dessa rekommendationer är lättlästa och riktar sig mot alla inblandade aktörer.

    Det övergripande syftet med projektet var att studera alla tänkbara brandrisker kopplat till litiumjonbatterier i fordon, samt hur riskerna och konsekvenserna av en termisk incident kan minskas. Som en del av potentiella säkerhetssystem har fast monterade släcksystem utvärderats genom brandförsök. Då släcksystem är vanligt förekommande för att skydda motorrum på tunga fordon, i synnerhet bussar, är det viktigt att undersöka vilka möjligheter dessa system har att användas som brandskydd för litiumjonbatterier. Resultaten visar att det finns potential att påverka spridning av termisk rusning inuti batteriet om släckmedlet appliceras inuti batteripacket, även med mycket begränsad mängd vätska.

    Information från projektet ger industrin och andra aktörer möjlighet att på ett konstruktivt sätt höja säkerheten genom att adressera de risker som finns, samtidigt som omställningen till fossilfria bränslen kan fortgå med fortsatt förtroende från allmänheten.

  • Mjörnell, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad. Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dennis
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bagge, Hans
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The Effect of High Occupancy Density on IAQ, Moisture Conditions and Energy Use in Apartments2019Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 23, artikel-id 4454Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Apartments built in Sweden during the record years 1961–1975 with the aim to remedy thehousing shortage and abolish poor standards, were designed for a normal-sized family of 2–4 persons.The mechanical ventilation system, if existing, was primarily designed to ensure an air exchange inthe apartment according to Swedish building regulations. During the last few years, the number ofovercrowded apartments has increased due to housing shortage in general but also due to migration.Another aspect is that the ventilation in many apartments built during the record years is alreadyinsucient at normal occupant load. The question is how doubling or tripling the number ofoccupants and thus, the moisture load will aect the risk of bad air quality and moisture damage.To find out, simulations were made to estimate whether it is possible to obtain sucient air qualityand low risk of moisture damage by only increasing the ventilation rates in existing systems orintroducing new ventilation systems with and without heat recovery and what the consequencewould be in terms of the additional energy demand. Measurements from earlier studies of CO2 andmoisture supply in Swedish apartment buildings were used as input data.

  • -, -
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport.
    SP Metod 2369: Skyddssystem för förvaring av brandfarlig vara på försäljningstlännen - Brandavskiljande skåp2018Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Försäljning av produkter som är klassade som brandfarlig vara förekommer på många olika typer av försäljningsställen, från små butiker till stora varuhus och stormarknader. Som förpackningsmaterial förekommer ofta plast och försök har visat att detta ur brandsynpunkt kan leda till en allvarlig situation på grund av en mycket snabb brandspridning (bl a SP Rapport 2007:24). Dåvarande sprängämnesinspektionen utarbetade därför föreskrifter, SÄIFS 1996:2

    1, som reglerade hanteringen av brandfarliga gaser och vätskor på försäljningsställen. I föreskrifterna krävdes bl a att "Brandfarlig gas och vätska skall hanteras på sådant sätt att betryggande säkerhet föreligger. Hanteringen får inte försvåra utrymning och räddningsinsats."

    I tillhörande "Allmänna råd" gavs exempel på de mängder av brandfarlig vara som kan anses acceptabel i olika lokaler samt avstånd till andra varor. Både mängd och avståndskrav innebar dock avsevärda begränsningar för handeln och föreskrifterna medgav därför att dessa skulle kunna ändras under förutsättning att åtgärder vidtogs för att upprätthålla avsedd säkerhetsnivå. Som exempel på sådana åtgärder omnämns möjligheten att förvara de brandfarliga varorna i ett eget utrymme eller i speciella brandavskiljande skåp.

    För att kunna utvärdera brandavskiljande skåp utvecklades SP Metod 2369.

    1

    I SP Metod 2369 beskrivs de provningsförfaranden och krav som kan tillämpas för att utvärdera skyddssystem i form av fristående skåp. Metodik och krav är baserade på erfarenheter och försök med brandfarlig vara enligt SP-Arbetsrapport 1997:35 vilka sedan fastställts efter samråd med en referensgrupp bestående av intressenter för myndigheter, räddningstjänst, handeln, försäkringsbolag samt tillverkare av skyddssystem.

    I MSB:s (Myndigheten för Samhällsskydd och Beredskap) arbete, 2016-2018, med att ta fram "Handbok Brandfarliga gaser och vätskor i butik" sågs ett behov av att kunna tillåta samförvaring av både brandfarliga gaser och vätskor i framtiden. Eftersom skåp tidigare varit avsedda för och utvärderats för förvaring av antingen brandfarlig gas eller brandfarlig vätska bedömdes det nödvändigt att förändra den tidigare kravbilden. Därmed uppstod ett behov av att förändra brandproven samt de allmänna konstruktions- och funktionskraven i SP Metod 2369 för att säkerställa att metoden överrensstämmer med de nya riktlinjerna från MSB.

    I arbetet inför version 6 av SP Metod 2369 genomfördes, som följd av MSB:s arbete med nya riktlinjer, försök med förlängd brandexponeringstid vid provet för utvändig brandpåverkan. Arbetet i SP-arbetsrapport 1997:35 kompletterades också med brandförsök gjorda för att undersöka vid vilken temperatur aerosolburkar exploderar. Resultaten av proven har bidragit till förändringen av provningsmetodik och krav vad gäller utvändig brandpåverkan gentemot SP Metod 2369 version 5 och tidigare.

  • -, -
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    SP Method 2369: Protection System for Storage of Inflammable Goods in Retail Environments - Fire Safety Cabinets2018Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This method evaluates the construction of fire safety cabinets designated for storing flammable goods in retail environments and their ability to internal and external fires. The general function of this cabinet must show that it controls and extinguishes a large internal fire, but also that an external fire does not spread to its flammable contents.

  • Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Säter Böe, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Utvendig brannbekjempelse i Midtbykvartalet – En mulighetsstudie2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The property developer E. C. Dahls Eiendom (ECDE) plans a building complex in a quarter in the city centre in Trondheim, the "Midtbykvartalet". The building will be enclosed by existing building blocks which to varying degrees hinder the fire service's access and efforts. Also, since the new building is intended for residential purposes, it will be necessary to install windows in fire rated walls against adjacent building. These factors result in deviations from a number of performance requirements in the guidelines to the regulations on technical requirements for construction works and there is therefore a need to find alternative solutions. It must be documented that these alternative solutions have at least as good an effect on fire safety as pre-accepted solutions would have. A potential side-effect of new, alternative solutions is that these can also, to some extent, protect the existing wooden buildings in the quarter.

    The aim of this report has been to identify the state-of-the-art within active fire protection measures for external fire-fighting and to obtain an overview of existing solutions and manufacturers and to carry out an assessment of the potential of these solutions.

    Risk scenarios

    An overview of existing buildings in the Midtbykvartalet is presented as well as an overall description of the plans for development. Based on this, several scenarios have been identified to reveal the potential fire-spread hazard between the existing buildings and the planned building. Furthermore, a qualitative risk assessment has been carried out.

    A literature study describes the state-of-the-art in water-based extinguishing systems for outdoor use. It deals with fixed extinguishers (facade sprinklers, water curtains), dynamic extinguishers, foam extinguishers, fire gels, as well as with sprinkler systems' effect and reliability. Furthermore, existing solutions (e.g. facade sprinklers, water curtains, water cannons and water mist turbines) have been surveyed, existing documentation described and assessed regarding suitability for use in the Midtbykvartalet.

    From the identified scenarios, it appears that fires in existing buildings are more likely to spread to the new building than a fire from the new building to existing buildings. The greatest danger to the new building will be if a fire spreads in existing buildings, up through the roof, through windows or along the facade to the roof. In many cases, the fire service will have good access with their ladder trucks etc. to perform extinguishing efforts, at least in the early phase of the fire. But the risk of rapid internal fire spread, which may include several of the older buildings, can create a challenging situation for the fire service and a risk for the new building. In case of fire spread to the new building, the fire department will, due to the position and height of the building, have difficulty with aerial rescue and evacuation from the new building's higher floors.

    © RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

    Concept for the Midtbykvartalet

    A combination of a static and a dynamic extinguishing system will provide the best balance between system robustness, extinguishing effect and flexibility for the Midtbykvartalet. Facade sprinklers are considered the most suitable static system solution. Facade sprinklers will primarily cool the facade of the new building and absorb heat radiation from a potential fire in the existing buildings, but will not be suitable for extinguishing or actively fighting a fire within the existing buildings. The design and planning of facade sprinklers shall take the design of windows, balconies and roof terraces into account, which have been identified as vulnerable points in the firewalls.

    Dynamic systems such as water cannons and water mist turbines can be used to cool facades and to actively fight a fire over relatively long distances. In addition, such systems can be established so that the fire service can take over control of the extinguishing system as needed. This property is important, because of the height of the new building and because of how it is surrounded by existing buildings.

    Both water cannons and water mist turbines can be combined with an automatic control that allows you to fight a fire at an early stage, even before the arrival of the fire service, as long as early detection is achieved. A fire that spreads within the existing buildings will not be possible to extinguish with permanently installed dynamic systems. Therefore, the cooling and extinguishing effect of such systems must be evaluated based on the scenario of a large fire in the neighbouring building, which has not been done before.

    The cooling and extinguishing effects for both systems are largely dependent on their control system. The control system must be capable of aiming the water cannon or the water mist turbine at the fire, if required compensating for wind effects and selecting an appropriate water jet mode. Therefore, in order to adapt the control system to the Midtbykvartalet, it is necessary to quantify the cooling and extinguishing effect of such a system in advance and with regard to a potentially large fire in the adjacent existing buildings.

    Selected water mist turbines have the option of operating in a full jet mode, like a water cannon. Therefore, such systems are considered more flexible than water cannons. However, water mist turbines set large amounts of air in motion and generate turbulence that can affect the fire. It is therefore important to investigate if and in which cases this can aggravate the fire and have a negative effect on other areas in the quarter.

  • Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Ranneklev, Sissel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Branner i avfallsanlegg2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste facilities represent a vital function in society, but fires occur regularly. The aim of this study is to provide a knowledge base on risks associated with fires in waste facilities, and to identify measures that can prevent fire and limit the extent of fire damage and environmental impact.

    Information was obtained through meetings with the waste industry, two inspections at waste facilities, a survey, a literature review and a review of the events registered in the fire and rescue services' reporting solution BRIS, as well as communication with other stakeholders. The project included land-based waste management; facilities for the reception and storage of waste (N=661), reception and storage of hazardous waste (N=250), and treatment facilities for hazardous waste (N=38). Waste treatment plants (such as biogas- or incinerator plants) as well as landfills are not included.

    High-risk waste types have been found to be general, residual waste, batteries (especially batteries not correctly sorted), electrical and electronic (EE) waste, as well as paper, paperboard and cardboard. General, residual waste stands out as an important focus area for reducing the overall fire risk at Norwegian waste facilities, both based on reported frequency of fire ignition and potential consequences with regard to equipment, downtime, environment and health. Waste categorized as "Hazardous Waste" does

    not stand out, and is not ranked in the highest risk category in this study, since many preventive and damage reducing measures have been implemented, and appear to work. Chapter 9 provides details on rating of fire risk.

    In the period January 2016 - May 2019, 141 fires were reported in waste facilities in Norway in BRIS. The total number of fires (including small, medium and large fires) is unknown, but is believed to be far higher. Common sources of ignition have been found to be composting (self-ignition), thermal runaway in batteries, heat friction by grinding, human activity and unknown cause.

    Regularly occurring fires outdoors, increased use of indoor storage and new types of waste such as lithium batteries lead to a risk that is difficult to manage, which can be a challenge with regard to insurance of waste facilities. Increased use of indoor storage is motivated by consideration for the environment and neighbours, but it may conflict with fire safety, especially because it restricts the access for the fire fighters and because of possible high heat stress on the load-bearing structure of the building housing the waste.

    Any major fire, regardless of the type of waste burned, could potentially lead to the release of pollutants into the air, water or soil. All smoke from fires can be harmful to humans and exposure to it must be taken seriously. There is a need for more knowledge and expertise in assessing emissions and environmental consequences in connection with firefighting. The use of extinguishing foam can reduce the consumption of extinguishing water, but the foam itself can contribute to contamination if discharged into water. A more detailed list of chemical content in the foam product data sheet is needed in order to be able to assess environmental concerns during use.

    2

    © RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

    Measures have been proposed for the design of more firesafe facilities, for waste management and for limiting the environmental impact during and after a fire. Key measures that should be prioritized are detection and monitoring, limiting the amounts of waste, tidiness, sufficient training, reception control, available and properly dimensioned fire extinguishing equipment, as well as solutions to collect extinguishing water in order to prevent the release of environmental toxins. It has not been possible to verify the effect of individual measures based on available data and statistics. The industry’s own overall assessment has been found to be consistent with experience-based observations found in other studies, and this has been found to be the best available information on effective measures. The responsibility for most of the measures lies with the owner of the facility or the business, and the focus should be on the use of documented technical solutions and the assessment of whether measures are appropriate and practicable at each facility. A fire risk assessment, locally adapted to the respective facility is important, as there are large variations in the types of waste handled, the size and the design of facilities, as well as other local conditions that differ between waste facilities in Norway. The fire service should strive to achieve a close dialogue and cooperation with the waste facilities. The authorities should facilitate better knowledge transfer and learning after fires, between different fire departments. The authorities should also, in collaboration with the industry, develop a national attitude campaign to avoid faulty battery sorting.

    Further work should study extinguishing techniques and extinguishing tactics that can limit the amount of water needed and that can be used during large-scale fires. Various detection and extinguishing solutions for use at waste facilities should be surveyed, assessed with regards to suitability and documented in cases where documentation is lacking. This should be made available on an openly accessible platform. There is also a need for further studies on the chemical composition of smoke from different types of waste fires, as well as studies on the extent and spread of fire smoke and environmental impacts from fires on water recipients.

    Increased fire safety at waste facilities could facilitate a better dialogue between industry and insurance providers by reducing potential financial losses. Good handling of fire risk in waste facilities will not only affect the plants themselves, but will also limit potential societal costs and consequences for health and the environment.

  • Janssen, Matty
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    Södra skogsägarna ekonomisk förening, Sweden.
    Echardt, Linda
    Södra skogsägarna ekonomisk förening, Sweden.
    Wallinder, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Wolf, Jens
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Life cycle assessment of lignin-based carbon fibres2019Ingår i: 14th Conference on sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems: (SDEWES), 2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin-based carbon fibres may replace both glass fibres and fossil-based carbon fibres. The objective of this study was to determine the environmental impact of the production of lignin-based carbon fibres using life cycle assessment. The life cycle assessment was done from cradle to gate and followed an attributional approach. The climate impact per kg of lignin- based carbon fibres produced was 1.50 kg CO2,eq. In comparison to glass fibres, the climate impact was reduced by 32% and the climate impact of fossil-based carbon fibres was an order of magnitude higher. A prospective analysis, in which the background energy system was cleaner, showed that the environmental impact of lignin-based carbon fibres will decrease and outperform the glass fibres and fossil-based carbon fibres from a climate impact point-of-view. The constructed LCA model can be applied in further studies of products that consist of or use lignin-based carbon fibres.

  • Baker, Darren
    et al.
    Baker Consulting, USA.
    Hosseinaei, Omid
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Sedin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Papperstillverkning och förpackningar.
    Echardt, Linda
    Södra skogsägarna ekonomisk förening, Sweden.
    Capanema, Ewellyn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Lignin-based carbon fiber: effect of softwood kraft lignin separation method on multifilament melt-spinning performance and conversion2019Ingår i: 20th International symposium on wood, fiber, and pulping chemistry, 2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A reference lignin separated from an industrial softwood kraft black liquor via an improved LignoBoost process was compared to four other lignins derived from the same liquor. The four lignins were produced by using a) pH-fractionation within the LignoBoost process, b) ultrafiltration of black liquor prior to the LignoBoost process, and c) solvent leaching of the reference lignin using methanol and d) ethanol.Lignin compositional characteristics and thermal properties were compared, and monofilament extrusion used to assess their potential for successful melt spinning at the 24 filament scale. The lignin prepared by ethanol leaching of the reference lignin was found to be most appropriate for potential pilot scale fibre production. This was owing to a high purity, lower comparative glass transition temperature (Tg), and good spinning performance.Thermal pretreatments of the ethanol leached lignin gave a selection of enhanced lignins which were characterized for comparison, and melt spun on pilot multifilament equipment. The enhanced lignins could be continuously melt spun giving filaments with diameters as low as 10 μm and with minimal defects. Conversion of selected filaments provided carbon fibres with a tensile strength of 1259 ± 159 MPa, tensile modulus of 67 ± 3 GPa and diameter of 7.3 ± 0.5 μm.

  • Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Spin-off från möbelindustrin till byggbranschen2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a deficit of housing in Sweden and it is built too little to compensate for this according to the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning, which, among other things, indicate resource shortages as a reason.

    The furniture and construction industry have much in common. However, the furniture industry has a larger share of industrial production, which means production at a lower cost. By retrieving production ideas in other industries, there is an opportunity to radically renew and transform the (wood) construction industry and thus streamline the construction process. Historically, cross-sectoral spin-off effects have been shown to generate success factors.

    The goal of this project is to develop prototypes for building connections inspired by the furniture and interior industry and explore them together with industry actors. This, in turn, serves as an inspiration for a larger project, together with industry actors aiming at developing systems for assembly of building elements, which provide higher precision and are faster to perform than today's system. The pilot developed in this project shows that the idea is ripe for a more full-scale investigation.

  • Olsson, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Andersson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Eriksson, Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Åke
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Askåterföring och biogasuppgradering med träbränsleaska2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood fuel ash is a resource that should be used for nutrient recycling to forest land andwhich also has the potential to be used for small-scale upgrading of biogas into CNG foruse as vehicle fuel. In the biogas upgrading process, carbon dioxide is fixed through acarbonation process. The carbonation process is also an important part of theconventional ash recycling process, since ash to be returned to forest is usually stabilizedby storing in a pile for a significant period of time to allow the carbon dioxide of the airto act on the ash. This project has explored the possibilities of developing a technicalsystem and business models that can lead to ash filter technology being used to processbiogas into vehicle fuel while at the same time contributing to more wood fuel ash beingreturn to forest land. Work has shown that the preconditions are good for the ashproducers existing infrastructure to be well suited for use in a future system where thebiogas plant replaces the role of the ash terminal for stabilizing the ash. Desirableproperties for ash used for biogas upgrading is that it has a high content of CaO and anability to hold water without creating backpressure in the ash bed, and that the biogasstabilized ash meets the limit values for heavy metals and nutrients for return to forest.Within the project tests were carried out with 10 tonnes of moistened ash involving shortterm storage of fresh ash, ash stabilization in biogas upgrading filters and subsequentreturn to forest land. The biogas stabilized ash had a very low conductivity in relation tothe limit value, showed a lowering of the pH value from close to 13 to below 10 and metthe limit values for heavy metals and plant nutrients for spreading on forest land. Thespreading trail with biogas stabilized ash to forest land showed an acceptable distributionpattern and did not cause any damage to the trees. A slightly higher moisture contentprobably would have further improved the distribution pattern. The tests were successfuland showed that there is good potential for biogas stabilized ashes to be spread with ashrecycling technology currently in use.

    In a system where biogas upgrading with ash filter technology is integrated into the ashrecycling chain, the biogas plant will act as a micro-terminal, where ash is handled closerto the ash producer and the distribution site compared to a conventional terminal. Inorder for this to be effective, one partner must be able to coordinate transportation ofash and ensure the ash quality, which in many cases can be an ash contractor. It is alsoof the utmost importance that forest operators and landowners are involved to secureend-users for the stabilized wood fuel ash. The economic calculations show that the costfor ash producers and forest owners would be in the same order of magnitude as for thecurrent ash recycling system. However, there is a potential that ash filter technology cancreate a product of a more uniform and higher quality while at the same time upgradingthe biogas to vehicle gas quality. The system will also contribute to local production ofvehicle fuel and an increased supply of biofuel in rural areas. Revenues from theupgraded biogas are expected to cover a large part of the costs incurred at the biogasplant linked to ash management. However, the cost of handling ash at a biogas plant isdependent on local conditions such as whether the ash is supplied dry or moistened andwhat carbon dioxide uptake capacity it has.

    In order to be able to handle ashes from smaller biomass energy plants and other ashproducers that currently deliver dry ash to end-users, it would be desirable to continuework on cost-effective methods for dust-free reception at biogas plants. Furthermore,there is a need for continued work linked to the storage of fresh ash. From a logisticalperspective there is a need to store the ash for shorter periods to get more efficienttransport and to be able to store ash from the winter season for use during the summer.For a long-term successful implementation of the developed system, it is important tocontinue to address the challenge linked to the forest owners’ interest in spreading ashin the future. For a smaller biogas plant that handles 500 tonnes / year of dry ash, acollaboration with up to 200-300 forest owners may be needed to find the distributionarea for the ash over time. The challenge of finding end users for the stabilized ash isshared by other players in the ash value chain and the project group sees opportunitiesthat local use of ash for production of vehicle gas to the community could provide apositive local connection that will aid in the work for increased ash recycling.

  • Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Byström, Alexandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Van Hees, Patrick
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Innovativa elsystem i byggnader: konsekvenser för brandsäkerhet2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det sker en snabb teknikutveckling i den elektriska miljön i byggnader, framförallt i våra bostäder. Ett exempel är lokal produktion av el, där solcellsinstallationer blir alltmer populära. Sådan elproduktion medför även förändringar i övriga delar av byggnaders elektriska infrastruktur, såsom DC-nät och i vissa fall energilagring i batterisystem. Utvecklingen sker till stor del som ett svar på behovet av mer hållbara lösningar, ur ett växthuseffektperspektiv, för vår elförsörjning, och förstärks bland annat av statligt stöd och ökad tillgänglighet på marknaden.Ny elektrisk teknologi kan leda till ökad brandrisk och denna förstudie har haft som mål att undersöka denna problematik. Metoden har varit workshops med intressenter och experter inom området, intervjuer, samt litteraturstudier.Av de studerade områdena förefaller solcellsanläggningar skapa störst utmaningar i framtiden om inget görs. Detta beror dels på bristfälligt regelverk men även på att dessa system är distribuerade i byggnaderna med flera delar som kan orsaka brand och att delar är exponerade för utomhusklimat vilket får stora konsekvenser vad gäller uppkomst av fel.Brandsäkerheten i samhället har sett ur ett långt tidsperspektiv väsentligt förbättrats. Detta har huvudsakligen drivits fram med hjälp av ett förbättrat regelverk, som ofta inkluderat förbättrade provnings- och kvalificeringsmetoder. En generell observation i detta projekt är att regelverket inte hinner utvecklas i samma takt som tekniken. Detta är en ofta återkommande utmaning inom brandsäkerhet, men gäller speciellt för de teknikområden som behandlas i denna rapport där utvecklingen går mycket snabbt, och de ingående komponenterna nästan uteslutande har stor inneboende brandpotential. Rapporten konstaterar att för att skapa ett relevant regelverk behövs tillämpad forskning, så kallad prenormativ forskning, inom prioriterade områden för att besvara de frågor som ställs vid formulerandet av nya regler och standarder. Exempel på områden som bör prioriteras är 1) komplettering av det än så länge magra statistiska underlaget för bränder i solcellsinstallationer med olycksutredningar, och studier av redan befintliga olycksutredningar, 2) studier av branddynamiken i solcellsinstallationer, såväl byggnadsapplicerade som integrerade, och såväl tak- som fasadmonterade sådana, 3) studier av ljusbågars uppkomst och hur dessa kan undvikas, alternativt hur det kan undvikas att de ger upphov till bränder, 4) skapa underlag för säker installation av batterilager, samt 5) kvalitetssäkring av så kallade second-life batterier, dvs. begagnade batterier, som används i batterilager.

  • ., .
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    FIRE SAFETY IN ENGINE COMPARTMENTS: SP Method 4912: Testing of fire suppression system intended for use in compartment with combustion engine.2019Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This method assesses the fire suppression performance of fire suppression systems under mock-up operational conditions. For this purpose, several different types of fires are ignited and stabilised inside an enclosure with typical engine compartment characteristics before the fire suppression system is activated. After the fire suppression system has been activated and completely discharged, the system is evaluated based on its ability to extinguish various fire sources.

    In order to ensure the reproducibility of the test and facilitate its adoption in different laboratories, the method utilizes a standardised mock-up.

    The fire suppression system is evaluated both as a complete system and in terms of components.

    Durability tests are adapted for harsh vehicle conditions and are adjusted to suit both on-road applications as well as off-road applications.

  • ., .
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    FIRE RISK MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE FOR VEHICLES AND MOBILE MACHINES2019Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The method described in this document introduces a procedure for management of fire hazards in vehicles and mobile machines. The method particularly provides elaborate support for identification of fire hazards in newly assembled vehicles and mobile machines as well as fire hazards resulting from operation, maintenance and retrofitting. The method presents how the identified hazards can be translated to estimations of fire risks and how these can be evaluated. Recommendations are also given on fire risk reduction measures for common designs, procedures and systems. This method is based on experience and knowledge gained through research, fire investigations and other industry professional services, as well as information provided by the industry. The method does not guarantee elimination of fires but regularly performed fire risk management will promote fire safety.

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