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  • Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Lagerbielke, Erika
    Linneus University, Sweden.
    ETERNAL GLASS. Rapport - studie om återvinning av glas2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I vilken omfattning kan ökad återvinning av glas leda till minskad energianvändningoch minskade koldioxidutsläpp vid glasproduktion, minskad miljöpåverkan genomdeponi samt på lång sikt möjligen minskad brytning av icke-förnyelsebar naturråvara?

  • Leidzen, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Nikell, Jessica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Företagarens guide till lönsamt miljöarbete2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boubitsas, Dimitrios
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Sprickor i betong2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Fortifications Agency

    ’s (FORTV) property stock consists of numerous concrete structures built both above and below rock. Some of these structures have experienced cracking overtime which, in turn, can lead to subsequent problems such as reinforcement corrosion and deterioration of structural performance. Due to the fact that in many cases there are building requirements related to protection against forced entry and weapon attacks, it is of great importance for FORTV to gain an understanding of how cracks are developed, the significance of the crack development, how do cracks affect the performance, as well as how cracks can be remediated. A similar project, with a focus on so-called access protection, has earlier been managed by FORTV. During the project, it was ascertained that there is inadequate knowledge pertaining to crack repair.

    The goals of this project were the following:

    • Suggest a method or a tool to evaluate the extent of cracking in concrete structures which are included in protective facilities.
    • Describe which parameters can initiate cracking.
    • Describe repair methods to reinstate the functionality of concrete structures.

    Cracking naturally takes place during the normal use of a concrete structure without influencing

    the structure’s functionality given that it is designed correctly. However, there are other mechanisms which can initialize cracking in concrete structures. These mechanisms take place during various time periods (hardening, after hardening and

    during the service life). Three crack groups have been identified accordingly: a) cracks due to poor workmanship, b) cracks due to chemical deterioration mechanisms and c) loading cracks.

    Damage identification and a condition assessment can be conducted in different stages to determine the extent of cracking. It is firstly recommended to review the existing documentation coupled to the structure, followed by a preliminary inspection (visual), additional non-destructive testing and lastly destructive testing. Repairs are selected according to the source of the damage, it is to say concrete defects or corroded reinforcement. In addition, the functionality requirements for the structure shall be evaluated and the selected methods shall be assessed according to e.g. lifespan and cost.

  • Sandström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Simulation of rubber materials for seals in use in nuclear power plants2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Finite element (FE) simulations of how rubber materials for seals behave over time is performed. The application is seals for nuclear power plants where seals are exposed to elevated levels of ionizing radiation and temperature.

    A major challenge for the simulations is to find an appropriate material model for the rubber materials and how to calibrate it to experiments. Here is a material model proposed that can include effects like creep, permanent set, and temperature dependence. Calibration of material models for relaxation tests on EPDM rubber is performed and presented with good results. Simulations of leak and tightness of seals are evaluated and some initial observations on the effects temperature and ageing on the tightness are made.

  • Jensen, Sara
    et al.
    Lidbom, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Tiljander, Pia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Utvärdering av innpvativ värmeväxlare i kyldisk: för effektivare energianvändning i butiker2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a new innovative type of air-to-liquid heat exchanger, called HEALEX (which stands for High Efficiency Air to Liquid Heat Exchanger), has been tested and demonstrated in an open display cabinet at a supermarket. HEALEX is adapted for obtaining good heat transfer performance even at a laminar flow regime on the liquid side, which is often the case in indirect cooling systems in supermarkets. The heat exchanger consists of parallel plates, with liquid in every second passage and air in the other passages. The purpose of the demonstration was to show the potential of increasing the energy efficiency by replacing the conventional cooling coils by HEALEX. On the long term, the purpose of the project was to raise the interest and acceptance for this type of heat exchanger, and through raised acceptance increase the amount of energy efficient heat exchangers in supermarkets, which in turn would result in energy savings.

    One of the objectives of the project was to confirm results from a previous study where tests had been performed in a laboratory. The results from the laboratory tests showed that the same cooling capacity and average temperature of the “food packages” could be obtained with around 6 K higher inlet temperature of the liquid, -7°C with the traditional coil and ‑1°C with HEALEX.

    The project was not intended to directly compare the performance of the original heat exchanger and the one of HEALEX regarding efficiency. A field study is not well suited for direct comparisons of different heat exchanger performances, since there are too many hard-to-control variables (ambient climate, customer behavior etc.) that affect the performance of the cooling system. Studies for direct and exact comparisons should always be carried out in a laboratory, where parameters that affect the result can be controlled.

    The first tests were made with the original heat exchanger placed in the bottom of the display cabinet, and thereafter the heat exchanger was replaced with HEALEX. The data collected in the project were air- and liquid temperatures before and after the heat exchangers, air temperatures and humidities in the display cabinet, liquid and air pressure drop and liquid volume flow. Temperature and humidity of the ambient air is also measured.

    The results from this study show that there is a potential of energy savings by using HEALEX in display cabinets at supermarkets instead of conventional cooling coils. The inlet temperature of the secondary refrigerant could be raised 6°C after the installation of HEALEX and almost the same cooling capacity and average temperature in the display cabinet as for the original heat exchanger could be obtained. These results confirm to a large extent the results from the laboratory tests.

    The results from this study also indicate that the need for defrosting will occur much more seldom for HEALEX compared to a conventional cooling coil. Defrosting was initiated by time control at 6.00 am and at 7.00 pm. Since the pressure drop is constant during the measurement period it is likely that there is no frosting and thereby no need for defrosting. In order to find out if defrosting is needed or not, the it would have been necessary to increase the intervals between the defrosts, which was not possible in this study.

    Earlier studies have shown that COP increase with approximately 2.5% per oC increased liquid temperature. Thereby an increase of the liquid temperature with 6oC implies energy savings of about 15% for the compressor drive energy.

  • Brunnstrom, Kjell
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Dima, Elijs
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Qureshi, Tahir
    HIAB, Sweden.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB, Sweden.
    Quality of Experience of hand controller latency in a Virtual Reality simulator2019In: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2019 / [ed] Damon Chandler, Mark McCourt and Jeffrey Mulligan, 2019, article id 3068450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate a VR simulator of a forestry crane used for loading logs onto a truck, mainly looking at Quality of Experience (QoE) aspects that may be relevant for task completion, but also whether there are any discomfort related symptoms experienced during task execution. A QoE test has been designed to capture both the general subjective experience of using the simulator and to study task performance. Moreover, a specific focus has been to study the effects of latency on the subjective experience, with regards to delays in the crane control interface. A formal subjective study has been performed where we have added controlled delays to the hand controller (joystick) signals. The added delays ranged from 0 ms to 800 ms. We found no significant effects of delays on the task performance on any scales up to 200 ms. A significant negative effect was found for 800 ms added delay. The Symptoms reported in the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was significantly higher for all the symptom groups, but a majority of the participants reported only slight symptoms. Two out of thirty test persons stopped the test before finishing due to their symptoms.

  • Hesselgren, Lars
    et al.
    PLP Architecture, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Ingemar
    LogistikCentrum, Sweden.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Prieto Rábade, Miguel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    NuMo – New Urban Mobility: New urban infrastructure support for autonomous vehicles2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Foreword All transport systems have a certain capacity determined by its configurations. For cars the most efficient current form is constant speed driving, e.g. the motorway. Its capacity is limited by the time separation between vehicles. Any transport system that stops because of congestion or other causes by definition sees its capacity reduced to zero. Hence traffic jams are hugely disruptive. Public transport operates on a model inherited from the 19 th Century. Vehicles (buses, trams, railways, metros) run on a regular (timetabled) basis and stops at every station (bus stop). Since there is no pre-booking and the need of transport is hard to foresee, the vehicles are often almost empty, at other times hugely congested. The NuMo technology emerges from decades of work across the whole transportation industry. Autonomous electric vehicles (AEVs) equipped with vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication can safely keep shorter distances. In practical terms this means that a platooned car system has the same capacity in one lane as a double-lane motorway. Automated intelligent controls ensure that the NuMo systems never stops, thus achieving the highest capacity. Instead of waiting for the mass deployment of fully automated vehicles, NuMo starts with dedicated networks that integrate tightly with existing infrastructure for step-wise smooth transition to fully automated transport system. NuMo includes an on-demand public transport system which only runs when it is needed. The system will take advantage of close-spacing possible with robot controls – vehicles can run close together and also use less road width by less wiggling. Equally importantly stations and access to the normal road network is arranged such that the traffic flow never stops. The urban impact can be imagined by understanding the impact of modern public transport systems currently under construction. Some of them are underground to avoid disrupting the street patterns. Some are elevated, some rely on physical separation at grade. One interesting option is to use tunnels underground or in water to further reduce disruption. Many cities are abandoning the traditional port infrastructure giving huge opportunities to again regard water as a connector rather than something to cross. The NuMo system uses all of those techniques and detailed design studies are under way for each of those options. NuMo will make an important contribution to environmental sustainability in many respects. Firstly, it will accelerate adoption of electric propulsion; secondly it will encourage vehicle sharing; and thirdly by only running when needed will save on unnecessary movements and finally its construction costs will be less than conventional systems. Sketches of NuMo networks are presented on places as diverse as Stockholm, Gothenburg and New York. Naturally the system will also be crucial in the development of new cities. This report is a summary of the studies performed within the project “New urban infrastructure support for autonomous vehicles” financed by Vinnova through the Strategic Innovation Program InfraSweden2030. The aim is to explore the infrastructure support to accelerate the introduction of autonomous electric vehicles for future mobility.

  • Sjöberg, Anders
    et al.
    Lunds tekniska högskola, Sweden.
    Blomgren, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Imego.
    Erlandsson, Max
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Imego.
    Johansson, Christian
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Imego.
    Trådlösa fuktsensorer inom byggindustrin: en fältstudie av två trådlösa system för fukt- och temperaturmätnig2007Report (Other academic)
  • Landel, Pierre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Swedish Technical Benchmarking of TallTimber Buildings2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wood in the construction of multi-storey buildings has increased since the middle of the 1990’s and is still expected to grow in the future. 1994 the Swedish building rules changed. From material based, the rules became functional based. Before this year, the use of wood in houses with more than two storeys were prohibited for fire safety reasons. Now that wooden multi-storey buildings have been built for almost a quarter of a century, this report presents and explains the current technical requirements that multi-storey residential buildings must achieve:

    - Safety in case of fire, - Safe and comfortable structure, -Healthy indoor climate and frugal heating,

    Good acoustic. Environmental aspects and construction praxis are also shortly developed. Even thought, the list of requirements does not pretend to be exhaustively studied hereby. The choice is also related to the timber structures specificities. Five reference projects from 6 to 8 floors and built between 2006 and 2015 are presented briefly and used as examples along the report. Different wood building systems and technical solutions were used and illustrate the architectural and technical variability in the timber building industry as well as the evolution of the building regulations. The appendices to this report contain further information, drawings and pictures of these reference buildings. This report aims to bring some knowledge and practical ideas to people planning, designing or producing taller timber buildings in Sweden. It should be mention that the second part on safety in case of fire and the fifth part on acoustic require that the reader has some basic knowledge on this technical fields.

  • Wedin, Helena
    et al.
    Källman, Björn
    MoRe, Sweden.
    Kristinsdottir, Anna Rúna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Niit, Ellinor
    Swedish School of Textile, Sweden.
    Mansoor, Zaheer
    re:newcell, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Christofer
    re:newcell, Sweden.
    Rammsy, Hanna
    MoRe, Sweden.
    Evaluation of dyeing and finishingcomponents in recycling and regeneration ofcoloured textiles prototypes2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to create secondary raw materials with low impurity content is importantfrom a fibre regeneration processing perspective. Cotton textiles contain colourantsand textile finish, which can be considered as impurities in a chemical recyclingprocess. Removal of such impurities in a decolourisation stage would enhance the fibredissolving capacity and stabilise and simplify the fibre regeneration process.Moreover, the removal of impurities from secondary raw materials is also importantfrom an environmental and health perspective. Chemical recycling has the potentialto deal with the risk of retaining or spreading hazardous substances further inre-circulated textile loops. Of specific concern are colourants or additives withcarcinogenic or endocrine disruptive attributes as well as bioaccumulative substancessuch as PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances), which are commonly used intextiles for dirt and water repellency.This report describes an experimental evaluation of physical properties of decolourisedcotton regenerated into viscose fibres and an analysis of potentially hazardous textilefinish components throughout a decolourisation approach. The three main researchquestions in this report are:1. Can we obtain viscose fibres from a decolourised black cotton fabric withsimilar physical properties as commercial viscose fibres by using the re:newcelldecolourisation approach?2. Can the impact from a DMeDHEU(1) anti-wrinkle and a fatty acid softener finish onthe physical viscose fibre properties be eliminated using this decolourisation approach?3. Could chemical recycling be a potential solution for recirculation of textiles whichhave a risk of containing hazardous substances of for example PFAS dirt and waterrepellent type?

    The project has been performed within the Mistra Future Fashion research program byjoint work from re:newcell, MoRe research, Swerea IVF, Swedish School of Textile and RISE,and with support from the companies DyStar®, Lenzing AG, H&M, I:CO, Boob design,Wiges, New Wave Group, Filippa K and Kappahl. The part of the study that concerned thedirt and water repellent was performed in cooperation with the research project SUPFESfunded by the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences andSpatial Planning (FORMAS) under grant agreement No. 2012-2148.The study showed that viscose fibres can be produced from decolourised cotton usingthe re:newcell decolourisation approach. However, the desired physical fibre propertieswere not obtained. More optimisation in the decolourisation stage is needed to adapt thecotton substrate for the viscose process.

    A first indication of the softener to positively affect tenacity of the viscose fibre wasobserved. The anti-wrinkle treated fabric showed a tendency in higher reduced cloggingnumber, but no influence on the physical fibre properties was seen. While caution shouldbe taken in drawing conclusions from the few performed trials, it seems likely that theimpact from the tested types of anti-wrinkle agent and softener on the viscose processcould not be eliminated by the use of the decolourisation approach. This also raisesthe question of how persistent the softener is in a decolourisation process. The resultsfrom the analysis on dirt and water repellent substances (DWR/PFAS) throughout thedecolourisation process showed that one third remained in the pulp. This suggests thatthe DWR binds to the fibres in a way which the decolourisation process is not able toreverse.Taken together, these results are not sufficient to prove the hypothesis of whetherchemical recycling could be a potential solution for recirculation of textiles with risk forcontaining hazardous substances of this sort.The trials lead to the following conclusions: The used decolourisation approach haspotential to remove the type of reactive dye, wrinkle-free agent and softener tested inthis study. Adaption of the decolourisation process for the cotton substrate is neededin further trials. In the specific case of cotton flows with presence of dirt and waterrepellent finish we recommend designing of another decolourisation approach.

  • de la Motte, Hanna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Palme, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    The development of the Blend Re:windprocess2018Report (Other academic)
  • Sundelin, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Linder, Marcus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Gustavsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Börjesson, Conny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Business case for electric road2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrified roads have the potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the transport sector. Where long-distance heavy traffic is concerned, there is actually no cheaper alternative which is equally energy-efficient, has such low carbon dioxide emissions and for which the energy supply is assured in Sweden and the rest of Europe. Many questions nevertheless remain.

    In this preliminary study we have focussed on the business ecosystem likely to be built up alongside an electrified road. This has been done by means of interviewing interested parties and a thorough review of previous publications. On the basis of this background information, a computation model has been developed to be able to analyse the influence of various parameters. The stretch of 120 kilometre long road between Gävle and Borlänge has been used as a case study but an attempt to find other applicable stretches has also been undertaken. The model has a solid footing with the parties involved in the project and with people who have good insight into financial computations previously undertaken in relation to electrified roads.

    The computation model that has been developed is primarily thought of as a model for overall surpluses or deficits for all stakeholders in the business ecosystem. It is not, therefore, a complete socio-economic model, which would include considerably more consequences for society at large, such as the influence on local and national businesses, increased employment and so forth. The model has been developed on the assumption that all prices and values are given for a point in time when the solution is in an ’early commercialisation phase’.

    In comparison with diesel routes, it generally applies for electrified roads that every kilometre of road and every vehicle adds extra costs and that every kilometre driven creates savings. Thus for an electrified road system to be profitable, the stretch of electrified road must comprise a significant percentage of the overall distance driven by a truck. Nor must the stretch of road be too short, for then too much time is spent loading/unloading and too few kilometres (where the savings occur) are driven. Following familiarisation with various scenarios, a coherent, highly qualitative judgment, based on the electrified road computation model, would suggest that the suitable characteristics for such roads would be:

    • A distance of at least twenty kilometres
    • Annual average daily traffic (AADT) for electrified road trucks should be around two times as many as the number of electrified kilometres
    • The electrified stretch should comprise 60% percent or more of the trucks’ overall distance driven each year.

    For the case of Gävle-Borlänge (120 km), it appears that the stretch will be able to pay for itself, for example, when 190 electrified trucks complete the stretch an average of 4 times per day throughout the year (back and forth twice a day 365 days a year), amounting to 92% of the vehicles’ overall distance being driven on electrified road.

  • Schlee, Philipp
    et al.
    Queen Mary University of London, UK.
    Herou, Servann
    Queen Mary University of London, UK.
    Jervis, Rhodri
    University College London, UK.
    Shearing, Paul R
    University College London, UK.
    Brett, Dan J. L.
    University College London, UK.
    Baker, Darren
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Hosseinaei, Omid
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Murshed, Mangir M.
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Li, Yaomin
    University College London, UK.
    Mostazo-Lopez, Maria Jose
    Universidad de Alicante, Spain.
    Cazorla-Amoros, Diegoa
    Universidad de Alicante, Spain.
    Sobrido, Ana Belen Jorge
    Queen Mary University of London, UK.
    Titirici, Maria-Magdalena
    Queen Mary University of London, UK.
    Free-standing supercapacitors from kraft lignin nanofibers with remarkable volumetric energy density2019In: Chemical Science, ISSN 2041-6539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have discovered a very simple method to address the challenge associated with the low volumetric energy density of free-standing carbon nanofiber electrodes for supercapacitors by electrospinning Kraft lignin in the presence of an oxidizing salt (NaNO3) and subsequent carbonization in a reducing atmosphere. The presence of the oxidative salt decreases the diameter of the resulting carbon nanofibers doubling their packing density from 0.51 to 1.03 mg cm−2 and hence doubling the volumetric energy density. At the same time, the oxidative NaNO3 salt eletrospun and carbonized together with lignin dissolved in NaOH acts as a template to increase the microporosity, thus contributing to a good gravimetric energy density. By simply adjusting the process parameters (amount of oxidizing/reducing agent), the gravimetric and volumetric energy density of the resulting lignin free-standing carbon nanofiber electrodes can be carefully tailored to fit specific power to energy demands. The areal capacitance increased from 147 mF cm−2 in the absence of NaNO3 to 350 mF cm−2 with NaNO3 translating into a volumetric energy density increase from 949 μW h cm−3 without NaNO3 to 2245 μW h cm−3 with NaNO3. Meanwhile, the gravimetric capacitance also increased from 151 F g−1 without to 192 F g−1 with NaNO3.

  • Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Utredning - branntekniske ytelser for kledninger og overflater2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Norwegian Building Authority (DiBK) has asked RISE Fire Research to review the preaccepted fire performances for coverings and linings in the guidelines to the Norwegian building regulations. Requirements for both interior and exterior coverings and surfaces(façades) have been evaluated.

    The review is based on a study of previous and existing Norwegian building regulations, and in addition, we have also examined how the classes for coverings and linings are applied and interpreted in the Swedish and Danish building regulations.

    Today's pre-accepted fire performance, class B-s3, d0, for exterior cladding including a cavityon facades is evaluated, based on the British investigations after the fire in Grenfell Tower inLondon in June 2017. A simple assessment of how the façade systems that were tested according to the British standard BS 8414-1 probably would behave if tested according to the method SP FIRE 105.The report concludes with several recommendations on revision of the text in the guidelines to the building regulations TEK17 intended to prevent misunderstandings regarding the fire regulations for coverings and linings.

  • Sandström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Simulation and calibration of rubber materials for seals2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Finite element (FE) simulations of how rubber materials for seals behave over time isperformed. The application is seals for nuclear power plants where seals are exposed toelevated levels of ionizing radiation and temperature.A major challenge for the simulations is to find an appropriate material model for the rubbermaterials and how to calibrate it to experiments. Here is a material model proposed that caninclude effects like creep, permanent set, and temperature dependence. Calibration of materialmodels for relaxation tests on EPDM rubber is performed and presented with good results.Further modelling to include more effects in the material and to simulate leak and tightness ofseals are proposed.

  • Coutiño, Ana Martha
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wahlberg, Alexander
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    McNamara, Greg
    Dublin City University, Ireland.
    Demonstration project to prove the techno-economic feasibility of using algae to treat saline wastewater from the food industry2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable is a process report of tasks 7.2 and 7.3 concerning the techno-economic and environmental evaluation of the SaltGae system. It also describes the plan forward to execute task 7.4 and 7.5 regarding the social and integrated sustainability assessments. The last section also includes a process report of the SaltGae Visualisation tool (SVT).

  • Lycken, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Luomala, Petri
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Det digitala sågverket - Slutrapport2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Digital Sawmill is a project that has been going on for two years, 2017-2018. The project is funded by Vinnova and the participating companies Moelven Industrier, RemaSawco, Schneider Electric and RISE. The aim of the project was to, by digitizing the sawmill's production and process data, increase the process efficiency by 15%, increase the product value by 10% and reduce energy consumption by 10%.

    Installations and practical work on site has been performed at Moelven Valåsen.

    In the beginning of the project, a specification of needs and inventory of what already existed was made. An initial inventory of communication and data storage was carried out by Moelven's own IT department together with Schneider Electric. Inventory of sensors to measure on the wood was carried out by Moelven and RemaSawco.

    To connect different sensors, to filter and give the possibility to choose which values ​​to send and to a certain extent standardize the data formats all sensors and sensors are connected over an integration platform before data is sent to storage. In this way, with an integration platform, it is fairly easy to add and change sensors. Moelven's choice of integration platform fell on Apache NiFi.

    Moelven Valåsen has several systems with local storage. With the help of integrations, the storage location is doubled against a cloud service, in our case Google Cloud. To reduce the storage requirement in Google's Cloud, data is filtered at integrations where only values ​​of benefit for analysis are transferred.

    Even before this project started, a large number of sensors were installed. They worked locally and solved local measurements such as measuring diameter and quality of logs as well as dimensions, quality and moisture ratio on planks. In addition, new sensors and sensors have been installed to measure both the processes and the products.

    To achieve the set goals, some thirty analyzes were defined, all of which support one or more of the formulated objectives and which illustrate potential improvement oppor­tu­nities. The analyzes are based on measurements of energy, power, measurements of logs, fingerprints on log compared to board, blocks and sawn / dried goods, as well as at times and time intervals in the process. Of the formulated analyzes, the project has developed several manual analyzes and results, i.e. analyzes that require a manual start to obtain a report. Continued work is required to implement automatic reports. This will be done in a follow-up project where several Notebooks with Pythons scripts are adapted for Google Dataflow for real-time analysis.

    The project has reached a number of sub-goals. Some of them are confirmed in the project while others have been calculated. The reason why a number need to be calcu­lated is that, in order to be confirmed, they also require some rebuilding of mechanics, which was not possible during this limited project time. One such example is to be able to confirm an estimated 10% energy saving by optimizing the use of the kiln dryers.

    Meters and sensors for measuring energy and power were installed too late in the project for an acceptable base level to be established.

    Since circumstances beyond the control of the project have had a significant impact on production, it is difficult to demonstrate that the project has affected efficiency in particular. The project partners are fully assured that the process efficiency can be increased by at least 15% when the analysis tool is in place, so the causes of stops and downtime can be found and remedied before problems arise.

    One of the ways the product value has increased is to increase the volume yield by reducing the green dimensions. This is done through the possibility of checking both the green dimensions and the dimensions of the finished products. A calculation shows a potential increase in value of approximately SEK 5 million per year.

    Another way to increase the product value is by means of correlating board quality to log quality. A method for identifying corresponding logs and boards was further deve­lo­ped and a large number of correlated log and board grades were collected. This infor­ma­tion can contribute to a considerably improved timber grading and sorting, but within the time frame of the project there was no time to evaluate changed log sorting settings. The increase in product value based on this methodology can be estimated to at least 5%.

    The project has clarified how digitization requires collaboration between different sensors, sometimes from different suppliers, in order to achieve the goals of the project. Such collaboration places demands on open system solutions and a well-considered overall system architecture.

    Some important lessons learned from the project can be summarized in a number of points:

    • Digitization is a complicated project that takes time and requires resources.
    • It is essential to focus on the goals set.
    • Careful planning is required of: plant inventory, installation in stages, demanding deployment with parallel systems for new automated connections.
    • Digitization projects start with details, continue with details and even more detail, with clear goals of a result of shaping a unified unit.
    • Massive skills challenge.
    • Visualize more, with less monitoring screens.
    • Take control of data flows and take ownership of your own data.
    • Platforms that handle data need to be tested in a harsh environment before
    • Different systems that measure time, energy or dimension need to be synchronized onsite, and with periodicity calibrated against "approved" similar.
    • Traceability in saw lines can be achieved with redundant systems that measure length with the addition of timestamp.

    Another project result is a new way of tracing products in a process line. The method is called Delta Time, and is patent pending. According to the method, products, in our case logs, blocks and planks, can be traced by following the time pattern for measure­ments on the product. This means that all types of measurement can be used to trace a product. For example, length in a process measurement can be traced to power in the next and thickness in the third measurement.

    In the above-mentioned patent application there is also a new way of presenting measurement values ​​on the screen, called AugLog. In the presentation, you see values ​​from a large number of sensors placed on the product being displayed. The measured values ​​have been generated at different times and in different locations, but they are displayed together with the object to which they belong, which gives an overall picture of the measurements made on the product.

    One very important project result is that we have formulated a method that describes how a digitization of an industry can go. Our experience from this project shows that it takes time to implement a digitization, and 2 years is a reasonable time frame to get a good bit on the way.

  • Sundborg, Bengt Å.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Szybinska Matusiak, Barbara
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Arbab, Shabnam
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Tower Blocks in Different Configurations: Aspects of Dayligtht and View2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The groupings of buildings can be made in different regular geometric patterns or in more irregulararrangements. In the PLEA-study “Urban Form, Density and Solar Potential” Cheng et al. (2006)tested some alternatives with uniform/random heights and patterns. The research team concludedwith pointing out the advantages of randomly positioned buildings compared to repetitive patternswith respect to daylight access and solar potential. In our opinion the conclusions about randomlayouts should be interpreted in terms of specific variations. This suggests that there may bestrategies for patterns and heights - not simply random arrangements - which this new study clearlyconfirms. Although the authors of the 2006 study underlined the need for further studies, as far aswe know, no research of building groupings has been done.In this research a series of geometrical patterns of tower blocks was developed to examine daylightconditions. Some are already used in practice while others seemed to be very promising. The choiceof evaluation criteria was based on the discourse in the scientific community on daylighting and onpractical experience in urban planning. The view was also included as in the new EU standard. Thestudy is carried out for an assumed FAR (Floor Area Ratio) of 1,12 with buildings of seven floors.Advanced computer based daylighting simulations and calculations of view parameters have beendone for seven different designs of building groupings of equal density.All seven groupings have good daylight conditions with Vertical Sky Components over 40%. Thesix alternatives to the quadratic reference model have higher sunlight radiation on façades,especially on lower floors, due to their less perpendicular orientation to the surrounding blocks. Thesame alternatives have sightlines up to 3-7 times longer than in the reference model. Theseadvantages depend on the oblique, triangular and scattered configurations as well as the differentshapes of the ground floor area.The quadratic group is the most common pattern for tower blocks. Unfortunately it also has theworst possibilities for view with a perpendicular view of 30 meters compared to 50,7 to 93,3 metersfor the alternatives. Local conditions as well as technical requirements must – as always – influencelayouts. However, the six alternatives can still produce tangible consequences thanks toconsiderations of daylight and view.

  • Furborg, Joe
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Introduction to Hardware Architecture and Evaluation According to EN ISO 13849-12019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hardware realization of safety functions, in safety related machinery control systems can, according to EN ISO 13849-1, be realized as one out of five distinct designated architectures. This report gives examples and guidance for choosing a designated architecture which fulfills the required risk reductive measure of the safety function.

  • Boubitsas, Dimitiros
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Tang, Luping
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fridh, Katja
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Utgenannt, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Frost Resistance of Concrete – Experience from Long-Term Field Exposure2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results from a research project financed by Trafikverket, the Swedish Transport Administration, co-financed by Cementa AB.

    The purpose of this project is to investigate concrete specimens exposed to a de-icing salt highway environment at Highway 40 close to Borås after about 20 years. The project work was divided into two parts: Part One for frost resistance of concrete and Part Two for chloride ingress and reinforcement corrosion.

    In Part One, more than 100 types of concrete mixes with different binder types/combinations, water-binder ratios (w/b) and air contents exposed at three field test sites were examined for external and internal frost damage by measurements of the changes in volume of, and in ultrasonic transmission time through, the specimens. Furthermore, some laboratory tests were carried out to supply necessary data for modelling and identify the possible mechanisms causing frost damage.

    The results show clearly that the highway environment is the most aggressive with regard to external frost damage. Further, the results from this study show that the existence of entrained air and the water-binder ratio are the main parameters influencing the resistance of concrete to external salt-frost damage. Furthermore, the concrete mixes with CEM I, CEM I + 5 % silica, CEM II/A-LL, CEM II/A-S and CEM I + 30 % slag as binder with entrained air and a water/binder ratio of 0.4 or below, has good resistance to internal and external frost damage. Results show that concrete containing large amounts of slag as part of the binder (CEM III/B) have the severest scaling, irrespective of its content of entrained air.

    Comparing results from laboratory testing of salt-frost resistance in accordance with SS 13 72 44 (the ‘Slab test’ in CEN/TS 12390-9) with results after nineteen years’ exposure at the highway exposure site shows that the laboratory standard classifies most concrete qualities correctly.

    However, there is an indication that the laboratory test method may overestimate the scaling resistance of concrete containing a medium to high content of slag as part of the binder. This indicates a need to consider a revision of the slab test procedure so that aging processes is better taken into consideration. A somewhat longer preconditioning time with at least partially an increased carbon dioxide content would for example lead to that the effect of carbonation is better reflected.

  • Tang, Luping
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Boubitsas, Dimitrios
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Utgenannt, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Abbas, Zareen
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chloride Ingress and Reinforcement Corrosion - After 20 years’ field exposure in a highway environment2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results from a research project financed by Trafikverket, the Swedish Transport Administration, co-financed by Cementa AB.

    In this part of the project work about 35 chloride profiles and ten moisture profiles have been measured from various types of concrete specimens exposed to a de-icing salt highway environment for about 20 years. The non-destructive technique, RapiCor, for corrosion measurement was used to assess the conditions of steel embedded in concrete beams with different types of binder and water-binder ratios. The ClinConc model were used to predict chloride ingress in concrete. Some laboratory test methods and numerical simulations were carried out to study the behaviour of concrete after long-term exposure.

    The results show that chloride ingress profiles measured after 2

    0 years’ exposure under the de-icing salt highway environment are in general lower than those measured after the similar exposure duration under the marine splash environment.

    Non-destructive corrosion measurement by RapiCor instrument is in general in reasonably good agreement with chloride ingress. The corrosion rust observed from the destructive examination verified again that the non-destructive technique RapiCor is a useful tool for detection of ongoing corrosion of steel in concrete.

    The ClinConc model in general gives reasonably good prediction of chloride ingress front in the bulk concrete but not in the near surface zone due to the drying-wetting cycles in the highway environment. After a certain modification with the consideration of redistribution of bound chloride in the near surface zone, the model can reasonably well describe the chloride ingress profiles measured from the exposure site.

  • Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Sesseng, Christian
    Metode for evaluering av branner2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten beskriver en enkel metode som kan anvendes ved mindre omfattende evalueringer av branner. Med metode menes her en systematikk for gjennomføring av evalueringer. En mindre omfattende evaluering vil være en gjennomgang der det enten er få forhold ved brannen som skal undersøkes, eller der situasjonen er relativt oversiktlig. Metoden er deretter anvendt på en brann i et sykehjem. Evalueringen av denne hendelsen er ikke fullstendig gjennomført, men fungerer som et eksempel på hvordan metoden kan brukes.

  • Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    Fjær, Sindre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Kartlegging av gasskonsentrasjoner, effekt av dødluftsrom og effekt av alternativt deteksjonsprinsipp ved ulmebrann2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Åtte av ti som omkommer i brann dør i hjemmet. Det er stadfestet at røykvarslere redder liv, noe som understreker hvor viktig det er at alle hjem har fungerende røykvarsler. I Norge er det krav om at fungerende røykvarsler er installert i alle boliger, og det er også gitt anbefalinger om deteksjonsprinsipp og plassering av røykvarslere. Det er anbefalt å benytte optiske røykvarslere fremfor ioniske, og at disse monteres i tak, utenfor dødluftsrom (nær vegg). I denne studien er det utført ti forsøk med ulmebrann i et testrom innredet med en seng for å: • undersøke om røykdetektorer med CO-sensor kan varsle beboer på et tidligere tidspunkt enn optiske detektorer, og følgelig øke sjansene for evakuering. • kartlegge nivået av giftige gasser i et rom hvor ulmebrann oppstår, og undersøke om grenseverdiene for forgiftning er overskredet når en tradisjonell, optisk røykvarsler går til alarm. • undersøke om røykdetektorer som er plassert i dødluftsrom reagerer tregere enn detektorer som er plassert i henhold Norsk brannvernforenings anbefalinger.

  • Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Bøe, Andreas G.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Stolen, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Gjøsund, Gudveig
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Halvorsen, Kristin
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Almklov, Petter G.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Rett tiltak på rett sted: Forebyggende og målrettede tekniske og organisatoriske tiltak mot dødsbranner i risikogrupper2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Personer som på ulike måter kan kategoriseres som sårbare, er overrepresentert i dødsbrannstatistikken. Derfor er det viktig å finne fram til effektive og målrettede tiltak som kan forhindre framtidige dødsbranner der personer som tilhører det som omtales som sårbare grupper er involvert. I rapporten brukes en helhetlig analytisk tilnærming som skal fange opp mangfoldet av dimensjoner som kan påvirke forebygging av dødsbrann, og hvordan disse virker i samspill med hverandre. Prosjektet har operert med en forståelse av sårbarhet som inkluderer både det fysiske miljøet, de menneskelige behovene og de sosiale og organisatoriske omgivelsene. En del av rapporten retter seg mot tekniske løsninger som kan brukes for å forbedre brannsikkerheten til sårbare grupper. Det har vært et mål å finne ut hvordan organisatoriske og tekniske tiltak kan brukes og ses i sammenheng, og hvordan tekniske tiltak kan implementeres, vurderes og dokumenteres.

  • Stensaas, Jan P.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Sesseng, Christian
    Kartlegging av forskningsstatus innen brannetterforskning2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    I dette prosjektet er det gjennomført et litteraturstudium der vi har kartlagt forskningsstatus innen utvalgte tema innenfor brannetterforskning. Det er gjennomført søk i aktuelle litteraturdatabaser for nasjonale og internasjonale publikasjoner, og i annen relevant faglitteratur som bøker og rapporter. Utvalgte relevante forskningsinstitusjoner og fagmiljøer er også kontaktet for å undersøke status innenfor de aktuelle temaene. Følgende prioriterte emner er undersøkt: • Brennbare væsker • Antennelse ved gnister, glør og varme partikler • Batterier • Selvantennelse

  • Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fjær, Sindre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Mapping of gas concentrations, effect of deadair space and effect of alternative detection technology in smouldering fires2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight out of ten fire-related fatalities occur in dwellings. It is a fact that smoke detectors save lives, which emphasizes the importance of every home having a functioning smoke detector. In Norway, smoke detectors in dwellings are mandatory, and recommendations on which detector technology to use and the position of the detectors are given. Smoke detectors should be installed on the ceiling, outside of dead-air space (close to walls). In this study, ten smouldering fire experiments have been conducted to: • investigate if smoke detectors with CO sensing can alert residents at an earlier stage than photoelectric smoke detectors, consequently increasing chances of egress and survival for a sleeping person. • measure concentrations of toxic gases in a room where a smouldering fire occurs and investigate if tenability limits are exceeded when n photoelectric smoke detector is activated. • investigate if smoke detectors placed within dead-air space are activated at a later stage than smoke detectors placed according to the recommendations.

  • Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    Optisk varsling – Veiledningstekst2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten er utarbeidet på oppdrag fra Direktoratet for byggkvalitet (DiBK) og Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB). Prosjektet har bakgrunn i at DiBK har mottatt et endringsforslag til eksisterende tekst i VTEK § 11-12, annet ledd annet ledd bokstav a, preaksepterte ytelser punkt 4. Teksten omhandler optisk varsling som en del av et brannalarmanlegg.

  • Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Evergren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Brannsikkerhet ved bruk av gassbeholdere i bygg2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten er utarbeidet på oppdrag fra Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB). DSB har bedt RISE Fire Research om å bistå med evalueringer knyttet til bruken av gassbeholdere ved serveringssteder, overnattingssteder og forsamlingslokaler.

  • Hjalmarsson-Jordanius, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. University of Borås, Sweden.
    van Amelsfort, Dirk
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Dolins, Sigma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Rewarding Sustainable Transportation Choices: Impacts of App-Based Outreach and Incentive Distribution2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is the most effective way to influence travellers’ behaviour using positive incentives andrewards? The European Project EMPOWER implements a diverse strategy to significantly reducethe use of conventionally fuelled vehicles (CFV) in urban areas, through influencing the behaviourof car drivers. The aim is to incentivise users of CFVs to change their behaviour with positiveincentives, thus rewarding them, rather than penalizing them, for making sustainable transportationchoices. This paper targets the setup and effects of the experiments performed in Sweden,including an expansion of the service from the main Living Lab in Gothenburg to other cities inSweden, where users are incentivized through a smartphone app called SMARTiSverige. In thetwo-step experiment presented in this paper, we used the app to collect data to develop challenges,communicate personalized challenges to users, and communicate the points achieved if thechallenges are completed successfully. Digital and physical rewards were then distributed to theusers as a part of the complete scheme system. In addition to an account of the experiment andachieved results, this paper also discusses the implication of this research on the existing body ofknowledge regarding incentives, and elaborates on how the lessons learned from this Living Labcould be used to scale up services in future sites for rewarding sustainable transport choices andimpacting the use of CFVs.

  • Persson, Mattias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Dataanalys och avancerade algoritmer : Möjligheter med utökad mätinfrastruktur2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An incentive for distribution companies to improve the efficiency of their operation is being suggested by Energimarknadsinspektionen.

    In terms of efficiency, 54 out of 159 network companies have higher distribution losses than 4% on an annual basis. If these 54 had made improvements in their power grids and reached an energy loss of 4%, this would mean a reduction of 143 GWh / year overall. Assuming a cost of 50 öre / kWh this would equivalent to 72 million kr / year. This may be unnecessary loss of having to pay at the connection point, but also a missing income for the distribution network owner.

    Surveys from electricity companies show what future challenges are ranging from increased energy metering requirements and reinforcements. The questionnaire shows that there is a large spread of how network companies manage their network losses, how to handle non-technical losses (ITF) and how they go about to locate and identify them. Compared to the cost of the new generation meters, storage costs for additional metrics and increased measurement resolution will not be the major cost driver.

    In this report, correlation, power flow analysis and machine learning are evaluated in order to detect and locate different types of ITF. With the help of machine learning, losses can be located without perfect knowledge of the power grid structure as long as these losses follow the usage pattern, and periods without ITF are available for the learning of the machine learning algorithm. For random losses, 3 different methods have been evaluated (SiM, K: SE and K: V) that show promising results with regard to localizing and detecting ITF using voltage values of energy meters. The resolution of the energy meters and its influence on the possibility to localize a ITF has also been studied.

  • Hjalmarsson-Jordanius, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Sundin, Niklas
    Consat Engineering, Sweden.
    Romell, Martin
    Volvo Car Group, Sweden.
    Isacson, Johan
    Combitech AB, Sweden.
    Aldén, Carl-Johan
    SEMCON Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Disrupting Automotive Logistics: Through a Combined Intelligent and Autonomous Transport Solution2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This technical paper addresses a novel and scalable autonomous transport system, applied in theautomotive logistics context. Production cars will be utilized as their own means of transportation in thelogistic chain, requiring no human driver. The cars will be guided by a novel intelligent transport solutioncombined with existing on-board Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) functionality. Thisincludes using implemented sensors in the production car, fusion of sensor data collected by the car,and connectivity with existing and future mobile networks communication technology. An intelligent offboardtraffic control system will manage each production car in the logistic flow and direct the car frompoint A to point B, as well as manage the interaction between cars in the flow. A prototype of the systemhas been developed, implemented in a production car and during 2017, being tested in live car-trials inSweden. In this technical paper, we describe this evolution in vehicle logistics with a focus on its onboardcore sub-system and the off-board traffic control system. We pinpoint design features in thesystem, as well as discuss the capacity for the system to disrupt contemporary models of automotivelogistics.

  • van der Weerdt, Caroline
    et al.
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Bridging the gap between service providers and people2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • van Amelsfort, Dirk
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Business Models for Incentive-based Mobility Services for Changing Traveller Behaviour2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development and application of a process and methodology to develop business models for sustainable mobility services that aim at changing travel behaviour and shifting people from carbon fuelled vehicles (CFVs) to other means of transportation. The mobility services will be implemented in 4 lead cities and 11 take up cities in Europe as part of the European project Empower. The paper summarises three deliverables within the project in which a literature study and case review, methodology development, and business model development in the 4 lead cities were conducted.

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