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  • Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Model scale tunnel fire tests on maximum ceiling gas temperature for structural protection2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Model scale tests with varying materials as tunnel structure were carried out to further study the theoretical model of maximum gas temperature for structural protection. New correlation for calculation of air mass flow rate is introduced. Test results showed that the maximum ceiling gas temperatures increases with the increasing heat release rate and decreases with the increasing tunnel width and thermal inertia of the tunnel linings. Higher ventilation velocity may also result in slightly higher temperatures for large fires.

    Comparisons of model scale tests and theoretical models showed that the theoretical models predict the maximum ceiling gas temperature very well. A fire with a fixed heat release rate or a time-varying heat release rate, the effects of tunnel structure, tunnel ventilation, tunnel width and fire size have been well considered by the model. Comparisons of other model and full scale tests with theoretical models further verified this.

  • Hammarström, Rolf
    et al.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Brandrisker i transformatoreroch reläverksamhet medsupport2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid en brand, eller incident som kan leda till brand, ger en tidig upptäckt och omedelbar åtgärd en minimerad skadebild. De flesta ställverk är obemannade. Det förekommer underhållsverksamhet under begränsad tid men till största delen har ställverken ingen personal på plats. Många anläggningar ligger också långt från tätbebyggt område vilket medför långa insatstider för räddningstjänsten och ansvarig personal. Vår utgångspunkt är därför att föreslå åtgärder som ger minsta möjliga stilleståndstid vid brand eller incidenter som kan leda till brand. Det är också viktigt att kunna övervaka och styra skeenden på distans. Resultatet av denna studie kan sammanfattas i följande rekommendationer. 1. Möjliggör tidig upptäckt med hjälp av högklassig detektionsutrustning. 2. Möjlighet att omedelbart identifiera problemet, från bemannad station, exempelvis via fjärrkamera. 3. Möjlighet att koppla bort problemområdet från kraftkällan efter identifierad incident. 4. Det bör finnas släcksystem som aktiveras automatiskt via detektion eller manuellt (fjärrutlösning). 5. Man bör använda släckmedel för relärum som inte skadar elektronikprodukter. 6. Täta genomföringar för att förhindra brandspridning och skadlig påverkan av brandgaser i angränsande rum. 7. Man bör utveckla släcksystem för transformatorer som kan aktiveras innan brand utbryter. 8. Möjliggöra access även i strömlöst tillstånd 9. Särskilja redundanta system 10. Viss överkapacitet på transformatorn

    Det har visat sig mycket svårt att få en tydlig bild av förekomsten av bränder eftersom de tillfrågade parterna, typiskt kraftbolag, endera inte har någon tillfredställande dokumentation över tillbud, eller har som policy att inte lämna ut den typen av uppgifter. Förbättrade rutiner för dokumentation av tillbud är en förutsättning för en långsiktig förbättring av brandskyddet. Kunskapen om bränder och explosioner i transformatorer är mycket mer begränsad än bränder i byggnader och liknande. Därför behövs ytterligare studier av de mekanismer som föregår och orsakar en transformatorexplosion. Vi föreslår ett antal forskningsprojekt i syfte att kartlägga dessa mekanismer. I förlängningen kan detta resultera i system som förhindrar eller begränsar konsekvenserna av det som idag leder till att transformatorer exploderar.

  • Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Principer och strategier för ventilation vid brand i undermarksanläggningar2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes different underground systems including mines and tunnels during construction (tunneling). The key factors that affect fire development in underground systems are described. Proposal and recommendations for ventilation strategies in case of fire are given. The report covers both fuel- and ventilation-controlled fires. In general, a minimal ventilation limits the fire growth and may even inert the fire through ascended smoke. A minimal ventilation also contributes to improved conditions for a first fire extinguishing attempt and evacuation.

  • Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jiang, Lei
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Influence of tunnel slope on smoke control2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The critical velocity and backlayering length in sloped tunnels are investigated by numerical simulations using FDS. Simulation in two full-scale tunnels, with negative slopes ranging up to -18 % and heat release rates from 5 to 100 MW were carried out.

    The results show that NFPA 502 equation significantly overestimates the effect of negative slopes.

    The equation proposed by Atkinson and Wu is found to be in closer agreement with the results. A simplified correlation, i.e. Eq. (12), is proposed and recommended for practical use.

    The previous correlation for dimensionless backlayering length, Eq. (3), is valid for tunnels of various slopes and aspect ratios, and can be used for prediction of backlayering length.

  • Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden; Örebro University, Sweden.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Shah, Syed
    iZettle, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Selecting Software Component Sourcing Options: Detailed Survey Description and Analysis2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems. When evolving a system based on components, make-or-buy decisions are frequent, i.e., whether to develop components internally or to acquire them fromexternal sources. In CBSE, several different sourcing options are available: 1) developing software in-house, 2) outsourcing development, 3) buying commercial-off-the-shelf software, and 4) integrating open source software components. Unfortunately, there is little available research on howorganizations select component sourcing options (CSO) in industry practice. In this work, we seek to contribute empirical evidence to CSO selection. Method: We conduct a cross-domain survey on CSO selection in industry, implemented as an online questionnaire. Based on 188 responses, we find that most organizations consider multiple CSOs during software evolution, and that the CSO decisions in industry are dominated by expert judgment. When choosing between candidate components, functional suitability acts as an initial filter, then reliability is the most important quality. We stress that future solution-oriented work on decision support has to account for the dominance of expert judgment in industry. Moreover, we identify considerable variation in CSO decision processes in industry. Finally, we encourage software development organizations to reflect on their decision processes when choosing whether to make or buy components, and we recommend using our survey for a first benchmarking.

  • Röding, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Effective diffusivity in lattices of impermeable superballs2018In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics: Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics, ISSN 1063-651X, E-ISSN 1095-3787, Vol. 98, no 5, article id 052908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Granular materials constitute a broad class of two-phase media with discrete, solid par-ticles i.e. granules surrounded by a continuous void phase. They have properties that arekey for e.g. separation and chromatography columns, cathode materials for batteries, andpharmaceutical coatings for controlled release. Controlling mass transport properties suchas effective diffusivity is crucial for these applications and the subject of targeted designand optimization. The prototypical granule is a sphere, but current manufacturingtechniques allow for more complicated shapes to be produced in a highly controlled manner,including ellipsoids, cubes, and cubes with rounded edges and corners. The impactof shape for self-assembly, phase transitions, crystallization, and random close packing hasalso been studied for these shapes

  • Peters, Greg
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Spak, Björn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    LCA on fast and slow garment prototypes2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarises the environmental assessment work done in the Mistra Future Fashion program focussed on the potential to improve the environmental performance of garments and adapt them to a circular economy. The approaches examined in this report include reducing the environmental impacts from fast-fashion trends by making garments from paper-based materials, or by extending garment life cycles.

    This assessment considers two paper-based garments. One is made primarily from paper pulp but enhanced with a polylactic acid polymer. This garment is worn between two to five times before being recycled as newspaper. The other fast garment is made of paper pulp, polylactic acid and nanocellulose. It has a similar life cycle but is composted after use life. These garments are compared with a standard t-shirt. The report also considers a slow-paced scenario in which a polyester garment passes between several owners and is regularly changed to maintain its appeal. It is updated with a transfer sublimation overprint three times, making the garment darker each time. Later it is joined with an outer shell of new material using laser technology to make a cropped, box-cut jacket.

    The assessment was performed using environmental life cycle assessment. More particularly, the assessment was based on attributional process analysis with cutoff allocation procedures and comparison with a traditional reference garment life cycle. Key environmental effect categories considered here include climate change (greenhouse gas emissions), freshwater eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity and human toxicity (cancer and non-cancer).

    The results indicate that the environmental outcomes of the paper-based garments can be competitive with the reference garment, particularly when the user is assumed to throw away a fully functional reference garment after five uses. This assumption may be true for some users, but the number of uses is considerably lower than the typical or the potential lifespan of the reference garment. The main factor assisting the paper-based garments is the reduction in the impacts per mass associated with material manufacturing (fibres, spinning, knitting), and also their lighter masses. Avoided impacts in the use phase play a secondary role on account of their location in Sweden with its low-carbon energy mix. The long-life garments are also competitive compared with their reference garments. This is primarily a consequence of how extending garment life avoids the production of new garments. The environmental impacts associated with transfer sublimation dye reprinting and laser processing do not significantly impact the overall environmental performance of the extended longlife garments, though confidentiality of data prevents a full assessment of these.

    The garments in this report are pilot products and explorative scenarios rather than attempts to model existing business or behavioural patterns. The reader should therefore take care to keep the results in context when interpreting them. Nevertheless, the results suggest the value of pursuing the potential associated with these garment life cycles. We should also bear in mind that while the reference garments in this assessment are based on typical usage patterns, other more sustainable patterns are feasible.

  • Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Proceedings of the Third SwedishWorkshop on the Engineering ofSystems-of-Systems (SWESoS2018)2018Report (Other academic)
  • Jacobson, Jan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Westgaard Berg, Kari
    Lörenskog Kommune, Norway.
    Bügel, Daniel
    Kunnskapsbyen Lilleström, Norway.
    Flink, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Thorsen, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Tornvall, Charlotta
    Borås Stad, Sweden.
    Lie Venjum, Mari
    Lörenskog Kommune, Norway.
    Självkörande bussar i stadstrafik - förstudie2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Automated road transport is regarded as a key enabler for sustainable transport. One example is the use of small automated buses as a supplement to already existing public transport services. There are several manufacturers of these kind of buses, and field trials are in progress.

    The goal of the pre-project is to evaluate the feasibility and criteria for transport with automated buses in two middle-sized Nordic municipalities, Lørenskog in Norway and Borås in Sweden, by analyzing at least two different test-cases in each location. Feasibility, adaptation to existing traffic and conditions for public acceptance are described. The pre-project concludes that automated buses are possible in these two municipalities. Further test and demonstrations should be made.

  • Tiloca, Marco
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Höglund, Rikard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Al Atiiq, Syafiq
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    SARDOS: Self-Adaptive Reaction against Denial of Service in the Internet of Things2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Denial of Service (DoS) is a common and severe security issue in computer networks. Typical DoS attacks overload servers with bogus requests, induce them to worthlessly commit resources, and even make them unable to serve legitimate clients. This is especially relevant in Internet of Things scenarios, where servers are particularly exposed and often equipped with limited resources. Although most countermeasures focus on detection and mitigation, they do not react to dynamically adapt victims' behavior, while at the same time preserving service availability. This paper presents SARDOS, a reactive security service that leverages detection mechanisms from different communication layers, and adaptively changes the operative behavior of victim servers while preserving service availability. We experimentally evaluated SARDOS with a prototype implementation running on an underclocked Raspberry Pi server. Our results show that, when running SARDOS, a server under attack displays considerably lower memory and CPU usage, while still ensuring (best-effort) fulfillment of legitimate requests.

  • Lundevall, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Mattsson, Lars
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Sweden.
    Improved glass bonding with plasma treatment2018In: Applied Adhesion Science, ISSN 2196-4351, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bonding of automotive glass is generally performed with 1C PUR adhesive on a primedceramic frit or naked glass surface. The aim of this research was to replace the chemistryof the primer with an atmospheric pressure plasma treatment (APPT) with compressedair for cleaning and activation directly before bonding. Characterization of theglass surface was performed with surface energy through contact angle, XPS, TOF-SIMSand adhesive peel bead test. The results show that APPT treatment can clean the surface,improve the wetting, improve the bonding but reduce the number of non bridgingoxygen for the adhesive to bond to. The highest measured spot temperature of theglass during APPT was measured up to 270 °C, but the temperature was depending onprocess parameters. A reduction in non bridging oxygen was also seen during heatingof the reference glass at 100 °C. A further reaction was seen when measured aftera 550 °C heating. A modified APPT treatment with deionized water as precursor wasused. The results show that the APPT with water does not lower the level of non bridgingoxygen and the bonding was further improved.

  • Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Rosengren, Max
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    New certification system for enhanced fire safety of vehicles2018In: Proceedings of 7th Transport Research Arena TRA 2018, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    RISE has initiated and developed a certification scheme for the vehicle industry that will enable manufacturers, operators and service centres (workshops) to certify their fire risk mitigation process. The fire risk management required in the certification is a key safety element, used to identify and evaluate fire hazards. For best results, it is important that manufacturers, operators and service centres are equally dedicated to solve the fire problem. Vehicle fire investigations reveal that design, production, operation and maintenance can all be responsible, however, most important is to ensure that information and experiences from fire incidents and identified fire hazards are linked to relevant personnel, practices, manuals, and quality procedures. The certification cannot guarantee the elimination of vehicle fires, but can ensure that manufacturers, operators and service centres will operate at the front line of vehicle fire safety engineering.

  • Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Metoder för att testa dukar och membran i tunnlar och bergrum2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tunnel and rock lining systems are used for drainage and icing protection. These systems can consist of any combination of concrete, metal, plastic or textile. The report summaries the available methods, both for testing and for installation. The large variation in both systems and test methods often make it difficult for constructors or designer to understand the importance of different methods. The report gives indication of what type of linings exists and how to ensure the fire safety of such systems. Fire safety properties can be verified in three different ways: #1 Full systems can be tested in full scale fire tests, #2 a section of the system can be tested in standardized furnace tests, or #3 plastic and/or textile membrane can be tested with regards to requirements on fire spread. It is suggested to require that a fire should not be able to propagate in the system. This can be verified with #3 above requiring class B, C or D according to EN 13501-1. If the lining system offers structural fire protection, it can be verified suing #2 above.

  • Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Analysis of 985 fire incidents related to oil- and gas production  on the Norwegian shelf2018In: Safety and Reliability: Safe Societies in a Changing World / [ed] Stein Haugen, Anne Barros, Coen van Gulijk, Trond Kongsvik, Jan Erik Vinnem, 2018, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire is a major threat in the petroleum industry. However, little has been published about the fire related incidents that have occurred in the Norwegian petroleum sector. To gain more knowledge, data from 985 incidents in the 1997 - 2014 period has been analysed. Examples of factors studied are type of facility involved, involved area or system, consequences and severity level. The analysis of the fire incidents reveals that even though many incidents are reported, the large majority of these have not imposed risks for severe fire accidents. It has also provided valuable information regarding possible dangerous situations, commonly in-volved areas, types of equipment as well as types of activity that were involved. Twenty-nine percent of the incidents were false alarms, which must be regarded as a high number in an industry where any production stop could be extremely costly.

  • Karasu, Feyza
    et al.
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland.
    Müller, Luca
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland.
    Ridaoui, Hassan
    Rolic Technologies Ltd, Switzerland.
    Ibn ElHaj, Mohammed
    Rolic Technologies Ltd, Switzerland.
    Flodberg, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Aulin, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Axrup, Lars
    Stora Enso Karlstad, Sweden.
    Leterrier, Yves
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland.
    Organic-inorganic hybrid planarization and water vapor barrier coatings on cellulose nanofibrils substrates2018In: Frontiers in Chemistry, E-ISSN 2296-2646, Vol. 6, article id 571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) can be produced in the form of thin, transparent andflexible films. However, the permeability of such materials to oxygen and water vaporis very sensitive to moisture, which limits their potential for a variety of packaging andencapsulation applications. Diffusion barrier coatings were thus developed to reducethe access of water molecules to enzymatically pre-treated and carboxymethylated CNFsubstrates. The coatings were based on UV curable organic-inorganic hybrids withepoxy, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethylenesilane (GPTS)precursors and additional vapor formed SiNx layers. A total of 14 monolayer andmultilayer coatings with various thickness and hybrid composition were produced andanalyzed. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the bilayer epoxy/CNF film wastwo times lower compared to that of uncoated CNF film. This was partly due to the watervapor permeability of the epoxy, a factor of two times lower than CNF. The epoxy coatingimproved the transparency of CNF, however it did not properly wet to the CNF surfacesand the interfacial adhesion was low. In contrast hybrid epoxy-silica coatings led to highadhesion levels owing to the formation of covalent interactions through condensationreactions with the OH-terminated CNF surface. The barrier and optical performance ofhybrid coated CNF substrates was similar to that of CNF coated with pure epoxy. Inaddition, the hybrid coatings provided an excellent planarization effect, with roughnessclose to 1 nm, one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the CNF substrates.The WVTR and oxygen transmission rate values of the hybrid coated CNF laminateswere in the range 5–10 g/m2/day (at 38◦C and 50% RH) and 3–6 cm3/m2/day/bar (at23◦C and 70% RH), respectively, which matches food and pharmaceutical packagingrequirements. The permeability to water vapor of the hybrid coatings wasmoreover foundto decrease with increasing the TEOS/GPTS ratio up to 30 wt% and then increase athigher ratio, and to be much lower for thinner coatings due to further UV-induced silanolcondensation and faster evaporation of byproducts. The addition of a single 150 nmthickSiNx layer on the hybrid coated CNF improved its water vapor barrier performance bymore than 680 times, with WVTR below the 0.02 g/m2/day detection limit.

  • Haeggman, Marika
    et al.
    Albaeco, Sweden.
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Albaeco, Sweden.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Planetary Boundaries analysis for Houdini Sportswear – a Pilot Study: Assessment of company performance from a planetary boundaries perspective2018In: Planetary Boundaries Assessment 2018 – This is Houdini, Houdini Sportswear , 2018, p. 37-66Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This is to our knowledge the first ever corporate Planetary Boundaries analysis. It is an explorative collaboration between Houdini Sportswear, Albaeco and Mistra Future Fashion with the long-term ambition to create an open-source approach that will provide Houdini and other similar companies with a more holistic view on their sustainability efforts. Albaeco is closely tied to the Stockholm Resilience Centre (SRC), an international research centre for sustainability science at Stockholm University, known among other things for its work on planetary boundaries, resilience and ecosystem services.

    This report aims to operationalize the Planetary Boundaries framework in a business context. The framework was established in 2009 when a group of scientists (Rockström and others, 2009) identified nine global environmental boundaries we should remain within so that our societies can continue to develop in a positive way. As such the Planetary Boundaries provide a holistic way of analysing sustainability that has acquired international recognition and contributed to the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Rather than a narrow focus on for example water, chemicals or energy use, a planetary boundaries approach implies covering a larger set of critical environmental factors.

    The manufacturing and consumption of clothes, like every other industry, plays a role in relation to all of the nine boundaries. For example, cotton is one of the most pesticide and water demanding crops grown; chemicals used when treating fabrics risk polluting water downstream from factories; and shell layer garments are often produced using compounds that stay in the environmental indefinitely and accumulate in the fatty tissues of wildlife and humans

    Albaeco, Houdini and Mistra Future Fashion believe that analysing the textile industry from a Planetary Boundaries perspective is an important part of a larger ambition to integrate scientific analysis and resilience thinking into projects focused on accelerating business solution for sustainability.

  • Lie, Ewa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Ålander, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Possible toxicological effects of nanocellulose: an updated literature study, No. 22017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review covers open publications and reports on the subject of nanocellulose and its possible toxicological effects. There is currently a rather low number of peer reviewed articles on the subject. However, from the articles reviewed, caution of inhalation of nanocellulose would be recommended since in vivo tests have shown immunotoxicity effect on lungs even though residues of other production chemicals, biocides and endotoxins from bacterial contamination might affect the results.

  • Mojzes, Akos
    et al.
    Széchenyi István University, Hungary.
    Trost, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Vörösköi, Kata
    Széchenyi István University, Hungary.
    Drop Performance of Dangerous Goods Packages in the Aspect of Parcel Delivery Standards2018In: Packaging: Driving a sustainable future, 2018, p. 569-577Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements for dangerous goods packaging are well known, whatever version are used. The testing circumstances are strictly defined for each transportation method (road, rail, air, sea). But nowadays it is becoming a practice that courier express operators transport dangerous goods as single package. This parcel delivery method means a higher risk for all kind of logistics participants. By this service the packages are delivered fast, but handled more roughly than in comparison to LTL (less than truckload) or FTL (full truck load). Naturally, the parcel delivery sector uses its own suitability testing methods, which are also well defined. These procedures are coming from various standards such as ASTM, ISTA or corporate (FedEx) standards.This paper compares the most common parcel delivery testing conditions concerning the drop test requirements of DGR (Dangerous Goods Regulation) using packaging such as paper bag, corrugated fibreboard box, steel drum and plastic jerrycan, respectively. Then the test results were analyzed to present the differences.

  • Odeberg Glasenapp, Astrid
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Sundin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Nordlinder, Johanna
    Swedish patent- and registration office, Sweden.
    Berthold, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Water-free bonding of corrugated board2018In: Packaging: Driving a sustainable future / [ed] Wang S-W, 2018, p. 608-616Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The "water-free bonding of corrugated board" concept focuses on thedevelopment, waste management and market potential of a new corrugated board production method. It has earlier been shown that by integrating PLA into paper, certain mechanical properties of corrugated board papers can be enhanced. These enhanced papers have been used for producing corrugated board. Corrugated board is usually produced by gluing the corrugated board paper layers with a starch suspension. This process is reducing the mechanical paper strength and is also energy consuming, as the water added by the starch suspension in the process has to be evaporated. In this study, two new water-free joining techniques for corrugated board have been investigated: PLA-welding, which melts the inherent PLA of the paper to create a bond and using PLA as an adhesive. Both techniques have shown promising results and are recommended for further investigation, however, replacing starch glue with PLA seems to be a solution closer to the market. For the material to fit in a future circular economy it is important that the waste is managed in a way that is sustainable for the environment and the society. Repulp ability testing in combination with literature studies indicate that the new material would be possible to recycle, and that the new material could function in every step described in the EU Waste Framework Directive.

  • Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Vinter, Jonny
    A Study of the Interplay Between Safety and Security Using Model-Implemented Fault Injection2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of high mobility and wireless communication in many safety-critical systems have increased their exposure to malicious security threats. Consequently, many works in the past have proposed solutions to ensure safety and security of these systems. However, not much attention has been given to the interplay between these two groups of nonfunctional requirements. This is a concern as safety solutions may negatively impact system security and vice versa. This paper addresses the interplay between safety and security by proposing an attack injection framework, based on model-implemented fault injection, suitable for model-based design. The framework enables us to study and evaluate the impact of cybersecurity attacks on system safety early in the development process. To this end, we have implemented six attack injection models and conducted experiments on Simulink models of a CAN bus and a brake-by-wire controller. The results show that the security attacks modeled could successfully impact the system safety by violating our defined safety requirements.

  • Johansson, Inge
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Yngvesson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Separatförbränning av utvalda avfallsfraktioner för ökat resursutnyttjande av aska2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avfall som går till förbränning innehåller olika mängder metaller beroende på vilken typ avfall det är. Idag blandas avfallet innan förbränningen för att ge en bränslemix som erbjuder hög energieffektivitet och hög tillgänglighet på anläggningen. Denna blandning av olika avfall innebär samtidigt att metallhalterna i askorna blir relativt låga, vilket gör det svårt att återvinna dem.

    Genom att ackumulera specifika avfallsfraktioner över tid och kampanjelda dessa ökar möjligheterna att återvinna metallerna i askorna mer kostnadseffektivt. Detta måste dock ske med bibehållen energieffektivitet och tillgänglighet, vilket kräver god kunskap om olika avfallsströmmars egenskaper vid förbränningen. För en av anläggningarna i detta projekt skulle en sådan förändring i driftstrategi kunna innebära en ökad metallåtervinning (Cu, Zn, Mn) med 2400 ton , utan några förändringar i företagets mix av mottagana avfallsströmmar (sett över helåret).

    Olika avfall har olika möjligheter och utmaningar. Exempelvis kan en avfallsström ha höga metallhalter men kan samtidigt förknippas med höga underhållskostnader och driftproblem i form av ökad korrosion och beläggningsbildning i anläggningarna. Under projektet har sådana möjligheter och utmaningar beaktats för ett flertal metallrika avfall som exempelvis kretskort, däck, kompositmaterial, färgrester, returträ, slam, och SLF (en fraktion från återvinning av bilar och vitvaror). De tre sistnämnda pekades ut som extra intressanta ur branschsynpunkt då det finns stora volymer av dem tillgängliga på marknaden.

    När man i projektet har diskuterat möjligheter och utmaningar så har mycket av fokus avseende utmaningarna varit kring bränsleberedning, lagring och förbränning medan möjligheterna främst varit fokuserade på den ökade metallåtervinningen och avgiftningen av askorna (samt även i viss mån de positiva effekterna som exempelvis vissa slam kan ha när de eldas tillsammans med andra avfallstyper). En viktig del för att låsa upp den potential som finns med samförbränningen är också den efterföljande metallutvinningsprocessen. En ansökan om fortsättning har därför lämnats in kring ett innovationsprojekt där fullskaliga förbränningsförsök planeras tillsammans med pilotförsök för själva metallutvinningen.

    Ett tydligt resultat från projektet är att det saknas kunskap om innehållet i många avfallsströmmar, eller kanske snarare just om innehållet av värdemetaller i olika avfallsströmmar. Det finns också brister i kunskaperna kring vilka tekniska utmaningar och risker som kan förknippas med att förbränna en större andel av en särskild avfallsström. Dessa osäkerheter bidrar till trögheten i att förändra driften, då de ekonomiska konsekvenserna av oförutsedda stopp i förbränningsanläggningen kan vara mycket stora.

  • Karlsson, Kristian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Toss, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Lang, John
    Autoliv, Sweden.
    Costagliola, Francesco
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Zheng, Tian
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Marel, Elias
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    HiFi Radar Target: High fidelity soft targets and radar simulation for more efficient testing (real and virtual)2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The 77 GHz radar is a crucial sensor in the Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and Autonomous Driving (AD) system due to its ability to detect and track objects at distances up to 200 meters. To ensure high reliability of the radar function, extensive testing with soft surrogate targets is needed. However, the radar response of a surrogate target may differ from that of real targets, causing unexpected reactions of the ADAS and AD functions in real traffic situations. The first project goal was therefore to develop and validate realistic soft surrogate targets, a work which was performed in several steps. First radar reference targets were designed and verified. Secondly procedures for calibration of automotive radars were developed. Finally, a thorough investigation on Radar Cross Section (RCS) characterization methods for large test objects on the test track was conducted resulting in several measurement setups and measurement procedures including uncertainty analysis. Now, with the ability to perform repeatable and reliable RCS characterizations, several real and surrogate targets were characterized and work on improving RCS profile of surrogate targets were conducted.Strong competition in the automotive industry and the need to validate more and more complex functions (including autonomous drive) drives the development of virtual test methods. The ability to test the ADAS or AD functions virtually early in the development will save considerable time and cost. However, there were no such tools available with full radar simulation in-loop available prior to the project, which was the reason for the second goal of this project: an ADAS/AD system simulation tool-chain with radar simulation in-loop.The HiFi Radar Target project (diarienr. 2015-04852) was an FFI project within the Electronics, Software and Communications program. After prolongation it was a 30-month project that started 2015-12-31 and ended 2018-06-30. The project had a total budget of 15.9 MSEK.

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