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  • Linda, Olsson
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    The Role of Electric Vehicles in Reducing Climate Impact: Swedish Public Debate in 2010-20182019In: The International Journal of Climate Change, ISSN 1835-7156, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet the Paris agreement, CO2 emissions from road transport need to be severely lowered. In Sweden, as in many other countries, the number of electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing rapidly. This has led to a recurring debate on whether EVs will help reduce climate impact or not. The aim of this paper is to analyze the Swedish debate on the climate impact of EVs with respect to framing and validity of the arguments. Thirty-one opinion pieces published between 2010 and 2018 are studied. Two discourse coalitions are identified; supporters and opponents of EVs. The opponents’ main argument is that EVs use imported, coal-fired electricity with high CO2 emissions. The supporters argue that EVs use Swedish, fossil-free electricity, thereby causing no CO2 emissions. Neither coalition’s arguments are wholly valid, but nor are they wholly false. Swedish electricity production is largely fossil free, but, at times of high electricity demand, fossil-based electricity is imported. Thus, Swedish EVs often use fossil-free electricity, but sometimes they do not. This is likely to continue with a large-scale transition to electromobility. Both discourse coalitions motivate their positions with a desire to reduce climate impact. EV supporters are optimistic about technology development and frame EVs as fundamental for future carbon-neutral possibilities. While EV opponents are pessimistic, their framing of the issue implies a need for society to assume responsibility for sustainability in a wide system perspective. This should be acknowledged and used by policy-makers, to ensure that EVs’ full potential for climate change mitigation be realized.

  • Warg, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Skoglund, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Argument Patterns for Multi-Concern Assurance of Connected Automated Driving Systems2019In: 4th International Workshop on Security and Dependability of Critical Embedded Real-Time Systems (CERTS 2019) / [ed] Mikael Asplund and Michael Paulitsch, Dagstuhl, 2019, Vol. 73, p. 3:1-3:13, article id 3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Showing that dependable embedded systems fulfil vital quality attributes, e.g. by conforming to relevant standards, can be challenging. For emerging and increasingly complex functions, such as connected automated driving (CAD), there is also a need to ensure that attributes such as safety, cybersecurity, and availability are fulfilled simultaneously. Furthermore, such systems are often designed using existing parts, including 3rd party components, which must be included in the quality assurance. This paper discusses how to structure the argument at the core of an assurance case taking these considerations into account, and proposes patterns to aid in this task. The patterns are applied in a case study with an example automotive function. While the aim has primarily been safety and security assurance of CAD, their generic nature make the patterns relevant for multi-concern assurance in general.

  • Dederichs, Anne (Editor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. DTU Technical University of Denmark.
    Zawadowska, Aleksandra (Editor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hemmarö, Linnea (Editor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    NFSD Nordic Fire & Safety Days: Book of abstracts from the NFSD Nordic Fire & Safety Days 20-21 August 2019 in Copenhagen, Denmark2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is our pleasure to hand over to you this book of abstracts for the Nordic Fire & SafetyDays 2019 organized by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden in collaboration Technical University of Denmark, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Lund University, Aalto University, Luleå University, University of Stavanger, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences and Iceland University as well as VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd and Danish Institute of Fire and Security Technology.We are very proud to present the abstracts of 63 Nordic and international contributions in the present book of abstracts. The work demonstrates a significant scientific depth and societal relevance. The conference is a response to the extensive interest in the areas of fire and safety engineering in the Nordic countries in the past decades. As the programme and the abstracts show, the NFSD follow up on challenges with respect to safety dealing with aspects of fire and human behaviour as well as rescue service and risk management.

    Anne S. Dederichs, RISE Research Institutes of SwedenConference chair

  • Gustafsson, Linnea
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tekniker för att mäta köttkvalitet och slaktkroppsegenskaper på nötkreatur och lamm före slakt2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Meat quality is a broad concept that can include e.g. retail product, ethical traits and eating quality. This report mainly focuses on the eating quality, i.e. the sensory properties, of the meat. Studies have shown that tenderness and taste is the most important eating quality traits in meat. The tenderness and taste are partly influenced by the amount of intramuscular fat (marbling) in the meat. Swedish carcasses of cattle and lamb is mainly classified according to the EUROP-system, which classifies the carcasses’ shape and external fat deposition. There is also a Swedish standard for classification of marbling in beef, which is optional for the abattoirs to use. These parameters are only possible to influence when the animal is alive. The marbling of the meat is affected by e.g. breed, sex, age and feeding regime. In general, animals with lower growth rates have a greater potential to produce marbled meat. Also, an intense feeding regime has been shown to have a positive impact on the marbling grade. Marbling is a moderately heritable trait in cattle, which means that genetic progress can be achieved by selecting for marbling within a breed. To measure meat quality on live animals can provide valuable information in the aim to improve meat quality in Swedish beef.

    This review presents techniques that have been evaluated in the application to measure carcass meat quality traits on live cattle and lambs. The techniques covered in the report are ultrasound, bioelectrical impedance (BIA), computed tomography, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), 3D-imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Studies have shown that marbling in cattle can be measured with similar accuracy by ultrasound and BIA, and there is also potential to develop NMR for measurement of marbling in shallow muscles. Both fat and muscles in cattle can be measured with ultrasound, BIA, computed tomography and there is also potential to develop 3D-imaging for these traits. Fewer studies have focused on lamb meat quality and for marbling, only studies on computed tomography was found. Muscles and fat content in live lambs have been successfully measured by ultrasound, BIA, computed tomography and DXA. At present, ultrasound and 3D-imaging are the techniques considered to have the potential to be practically applicable for measuring carcass meat quality traits in live animals in Sweden.

  • Olsson, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Westerdahl, Sofie
    Mobile Heights, Sweden.
    Open Collaborative Data: a pre-study on an emerging practice2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data intense defined software is becoming more and more prevalent, especially with the advent of machine learning and artificial intelligence. With data intense systems comes both challenges – to continue to collect and maintain quality – and opportunities – open innovation by sharing with others.

    To understand challenges and opportunities with ODC, we ran 5 focus groups (4 in Lund and 1 in Kista) with companies and public organizations. We had 27 participants from 22 organizations.

    Despite an interest to participate and understanding of the potentials of the subject, the overall maturity is low and ODC is rare. For ODC to be successful, there is a need to study technical, organizational, business, and legal aspects further.

  • Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Vermina Lundström, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Granström, Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Skogsbränder orsakade av skogsmaskiner2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several large wildfires in Sweden are caused by forestry machinery in operation, but there is no overview or characterization of machine-caused fires. Combining dispatch data, weather, fire danger and interviews with forestry entrepreneurs we gain a deeper understanding of spatial/temporal/weather distributions of these fires as well as their characteristics and underlying mechanisms. The average annual number of machine-caused ignitions in Sweden is estimated to 330-480 (2.0±0.4 ignitions per 1000 ha clear-felled land) of which 34.5 lead to fire-fighter dispatch. These constitute 2.2% of all forest fires and 40% of area burnt. Soil scarification causes most ignitions and the main mechanism is likely high-inertia contact between discs and large stones, causing sparks igniting dry humus/moss. This counters reports suggesting that such metal fragments cannot fulfil ignition requirements. We found a strong spatial relationship between forestry machinery ignitions and the abundance of large stones, represented by a boulder-index generated from 13500 nation-wide site inventories. Further, 75% of the dispatches occurred on days with relative humidity <45%, Duff Moisture Code >26 and Fire Weather Index >12. 75% of the total area burned when Fire Weather Index >20. Cancelling operations in stony terrain during high-risk weather situations can largely avoid the problem.

  • von Bahr, Jenny
    et al.
    IVL, Sweden.
    Nyblom, Åsa
    IVL, Sweden.
    Matschke Ekholm, Hanna
    IVL, Sweden.
    Bauer, Björn
    PlanMiljö, Denmark.
    Watson, David
    PlanMiljö, Denmark.
    policies supporting reuse, collective use and prolonged life-time of textiles2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2016 138 000 tonnes of new clothes and household textiles were put on the Swedishmarket (Statistics Sweden, 2017). The production of textile products causes significantenvironmental impacts. Business models engaged in reuse, collective use and prolongedlife-time of textiles therefore have a potential to contribute to reduced total textileconsumption and, as a consequence, reduced environmental impacts from textileproduction.Preceding work in Mistra Future Fashion (Watson et al, 2017) identified ten differentsupporting policy instruments for business models that extend active lifetimes ofgarments. The objective of this report is to select three of the previously identified policyinstruments and estimate the economic, environmental, social effects of these. The threepolicy instruments selected for further assessment were:- A wage subsidy earmarked for businesses that extend the active lifetime of textiles- A knowledge hub assisting businesses start up or transition to more circular models- Start-up/transition fund for business models/initiatives that extend the activelifetime of textiles.

  • Amiryarahmadi, Nata
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A Virtual Design Studio for Low-Frequency Sound from Walking in Lightweight Buildings2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been a growing interest for building lightweight multistorey woodenresidential buildings in countries like Sweden with large and renewable forests. While positive aspectsof these buildings, such as sustainability, ease of construction and lightness, motivate building more inwood, poor acoustic performance is a risk which concerns the wooden-building industry.Low-frequency impact sound from walking of the neighbors upstairs is the main source of complaintsabout the acoustic performance of these buildings. The disturbance caused by walking sounds,transmitted through lightweight wooden floors, results in acoustic discomfort and impairs theperceived quality of the building; sometimes even when the building has fulfilled an acoustic classhigher than minimum requirement, according to the national standard on sound classification and itssingle number ratings. The standard methods for objective evaluation of impact sound insulation offloors cannot predict, at a satisfactory level, the walking sound annoyance that the inhabitants ofwooden buildings experience. This causes an uncertainty about the resulting perceived quality of thesebuildings, which greatly concerns the building manufacturers and demotivates them from choosinglightweight wooden elements over heavyweight building materials such as concrete. This uncertaintycan be overcome by evaluating the perceived acoustic quality of the building prior to its construction.

    One solution is to build test houses where the subjective acoustic performance of floor samples can beevaluated in advance to the building construction. However, building a test house is expensive;besides, for evaluating the effect of every design modification on the experienced acoustic comfort ofthe building, a real floor sample has to be built and installed in the house, which would be timeconsumingand costly. An alternative solution is to use virtual acoustic test facilities.In this thesis a virtual design studio for impact sound is developed. It is a tool that facilitates creatingand listening to the acoustic field generated by impact forces such as footsteps on lightweight floors. Italso provides the possibility to evaluate the acoustic performance of floor elements in an early designphase, and to investigate the correlation between design parameters and the perceived impact soundinsulation of the floor. The tool is demonstrated and a very first listening test shows that one can obtainresults which are in good agreement with the results in literature. Loudness, reverberation andthumping are shown to influence the annoyance. It is also shown that there is a difference in judgementof walking sounds by persons who have experience with lightweight floors at home and by those whodo not have that experience.

  • Dima, Elijs
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Brunnstrom, Kjell
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Edlund, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB, Sweden.
    Qureshi, Tahir
    HIAB AB, Sweden.
    View Position Impact on QoE in an Immersive Telepresence System for Remote Operation2019In: 2019 Eleventh International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX), Berlin, Germany: IEEE , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate how different viewingpositions affect a user’s Quality of Experience (QoE) and performancein an immersive telepresence system. A QoE experimenthas been conducted with 27 participants to assess the generalsubjective experience and the performance of remotely operatinga toy excavator. Two view positions have been tested, an overheadand a ground-level view, respectively, which encourage relianceon stereoscopic depth cues to different extents for accurate operation.Results demonstrate a significant difference between groundand overhead views: the ground view increased the perceiveddifficulty of the task, whereas the overhead view increased theperceived accomplishment as well as the objective performanceof the task. The perceived helpfulness of the overhead view wasalso significant according to the participants.

  • Bosse, Sebastian
    et al.
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Brunnstrom, Kjell
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Arndt, Sebastian
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Martini, Maria G.
    Kingston University, UK.
    Ramzan, Naeem
    University of the West of Scotland, UK.
    Engelke, Ulrich
    CSIRO, Australia.
    A common framework for the evaluation of psychophysiological visualquality assessment2019In: Quality and User Experience, ISSN 2366-0139, E-ISSN 2366-0147, Vol. 4, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of perceived quality based on psychophysiological methods recently gained attraction as it potentiallyovercomes certain flaws of psychophysical approaches. Although studies report promising results, it is not possible toarrive at decisive and comparable conclusions that recommend the use of one or another method for a specific applicationor research question. The video quality expert group started a project on psychophysiological quality assessment to studythese novel approaches and to develop a test plan that enables more systematic research. This test plan comprises of a specificallydesigned set of quality annotated video sequences, suggestions for psychophysiological methods to be studied inquality assessment, and recommendations for the documentation and publications of test results. The test plan is presentedin this article.

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