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  • Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Spin-off från möbelindustrin till byggbranschen2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a deficit of housing in Sweden and it is built too little to compensate for this according to the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning, which, among other things, indicate resource shortages as a reason.

    The furniture and construction industry have much in common. However, the furniture industry has a larger share of industrial production, which means production at a lower cost. By retrieving production ideas in other industries, there is an opportunity to radically renew and transform the (wood) construction industry and thus streamline the construction process. Historically, cross-sectoral spin-off effects have been shown to generate success factors.

    The goal of this project is to develop prototypes for building connections inspired by the furniture and interior industry and explore them together with industry actors. This, in turn, serves as an inspiration for a larger project, together with industry actors aiming at developing systems for assembly of building elements, which provide higher precision and are faster to perform than today's system. The pilot developed in this project shows that the idea is ripe for a more full-scale investigation.

  • Olsson, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Andersson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Eriksson, Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Åke
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Askåterföring och biogasuppgradering med träbränsleaska2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood fuel ash is a resource that should be used for nutrient recycling to forest land andwhich also has the potential to be used for small-scale upgrading of biogas into CNG foruse as vehicle fuel. In the biogas upgrading process, carbon dioxide is fixed through acarbonation process. The carbonation process is also an important part of theconventional ash recycling process, since ash to be returned to forest is usually stabilizedby storing in a pile for a significant period of time to allow the carbon dioxide of the airto act on the ash. This project has explored the possibilities of developing a technicalsystem and business models that can lead to ash filter technology being used to processbiogas into vehicle fuel while at the same time contributing to more wood fuel ash beingreturn to forest land. Work has shown that the preconditions are good for the ashproducers existing infrastructure to be well suited for use in a future system where thebiogas plant replaces the role of the ash terminal for stabilizing the ash. Desirableproperties for ash used for biogas upgrading is that it has a high content of CaO and anability to hold water without creating backpressure in the ash bed, and that the biogasstabilized ash meets the limit values for heavy metals and nutrients for return to forest.Within the project tests were carried out with 10 tonnes of moistened ash involving shortterm storage of fresh ash, ash stabilization in biogas upgrading filters and subsequentreturn to forest land. The biogas stabilized ash had a very low conductivity in relation tothe limit value, showed a lowering of the pH value from close to 13 to below 10 and metthe limit values for heavy metals and plant nutrients for spreading on forest land. Thespreading trail with biogas stabilized ash to forest land showed an acceptable distributionpattern and did not cause any damage to the trees. A slightly higher moisture contentprobably would have further improved the distribution pattern. The tests were successfuland showed that there is good potential for biogas stabilized ashes to be spread with ashrecycling technology currently in use.

    In a system where biogas upgrading with ash filter technology is integrated into the ashrecycling chain, the biogas plant will act as a micro-terminal, where ash is handled closerto the ash producer and the distribution site compared to a conventional terminal. Inorder for this to be effective, one partner must be able to coordinate transportation ofash and ensure the ash quality, which in many cases can be an ash contractor. It is alsoof the utmost importance that forest operators and landowners are involved to secureend-users for the stabilized wood fuel ash. The economic calculations show that the costfor ash producers and forest owners would be in the same order of magnitude as for thecurrent ash recycling system. However, there is a potential that ash filter technology cancreate a product of a more uniform and higher quality while at the same time upgradingthe biogas to vehicle gas quality. The system will also contribute to local production ofvehicle fuel and an increased supply of biofuel in rural areas. Revenues from theupgraded biogas are expected to cover a large part of the costs incurred at the biogasplant linked to ash management. However, the cost of handling ash at a biogas plant isdependent on local conditions such as whether the ash is supplied dry or moistened andwhat carbon dioxide uptake capacity it has.

    In order to be able to handle ashes from smaller biomass energy plants and other ashproducers that currently deliver dry ash to end-users, it would be desirable to continuework on cost-effective methods for dust-free reception at biogas plants. Furthermore,there is a need for continued work linked to the storage of fresh ash. From a logisticalperspective there is a need to store the ash for shorter periods to get more efficienttransport and to be able to store ash from the winter season for use during the summer.For a long-term successful implementation of the developed system, it is important tocontinue to address the challenge linked to the forest owners’ interest in spreading ashin the future. For a smaller biogas plant that handles 500 tonnes / year of dry ash, acollaboration with up to 200-300 forest owners may be needed to find the distributionarea for the ash over time. The challenge of finding end users for the stabilized ash isshared by other players in the ash value chain and the project group sees opportunitiesthat local use of ash for production of vehicle gas to the community could provide apositive local connection that will aid in the work for increased ash recycling.

  • Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Byström, Alexandra
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Van Hees, Patrick
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Innovativa elsystem i byggnader: konsekvenser för brandsäkerhet2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det sker en snabb teknikutveckling i den elektriska miljön i byggnader, framförallt i våra bostäder. Ett exempel är lokal produktion av el, där solcellsinstallationer blir alltmer populära. Sådan elproduktion medför även förändringar i övriga delar av byggnaders elektriska infrastruktur, såsom DC-nät och i vissa fall energilagring i batterisystem. Utvecklingen sker till stor del som ett svar på behovet av mer hållbara lösningar, ur ett växthuseffektperspektiv, för vår elförsörjning, och förstärks bland annat av statligt stöd och ökad tillgänglighet på marknaden.Ny elektrisk teknologi kan leda till ökad brandrisk och denna förstudie har haft som mål att undersöka denna problematik. Metoden har varit workshops med intressenter och experter inom området, intervjuer, samt litteraturstudier.Av de studerade områdena förefaller solcellsanläggningar skapa störst utmaningar i framtiden om inget görs. Detta beror dels på bristfälligt regelverk men även på att dessa system är distribuerade i byggnaderna med flera delar som kan orsaka brand och att delar är exponerade för utomhusklimat vilket får stora konsekvenser vad gäller uppkomst av fel.Brandsäkerheten i samhället har sett ur ett långt tidsperspektiv väsentligt förbättrats. Detta har huvudsakligen drivits fram med hjälp av ett förbättrat regelverk, som ofta inkluderat förbättrade provnings- och kvalificeringsmetoder. En generell observation i detta projekt är att regelverket inte hinner utvecklas i samma takt som tekniken. Detta är en ofta återkommande utmaning inom brandsäkerhet, men gäller speciellt för de teknikområden som behandlas i denna rapport där utvecklingen går mycket snabbt, och de ingående komponenterna nästan uteslutande har stor inneboende brandpotential. Rapporten konstaterar att för att skapa ett relevant regelverk behövs tillämpad forskning, så kallad prenormativ forskning, inom prioriterade områden för att besvara de frågor som ställs vid formulerandet av nya regler och standarder. Exempel på områden som bör prioriteras är 1) komplettering av det än så länge magra statistiska underlaget för bränder i solcellsinstallationer med olycksutredningar, och studier av redan befintliga olycksutredningar, 2) studier av branddynamiken i solcellsinstallationer, såväl byggnadsapplicerade som integrerade, och såväl tak- som fasadmonterade sådana, 3) studier av ljusbågars uppkomst och hur dessa kan undvikas, alternativt hur det kan undvikas att de ger upphov till bränder, 4) skapa underlag för säker installation av batterilager, samt 5) kvalitetssäkring av så kallade second-life batterier, dvs. begagnade batterier, som används i batterilager.

  • ., .
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    FIRE SAFETY IN ENGINE COMPARTMENTS: SP Method 4912: Testing of fire suppression system intended for use in compartment with combustion engine.2019Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This method assesses the fire suppression performance of fire suppression systems under mock-up operational conditions. For this purpose, several different types of fires are ignited and stabilised inside an enclosure with typical engine compartment characteristics before the fire suppression system is activated. After the fire suppression system has been activated and completely discharged, the system is evaluated based on its ability to extinguish various fire sources.

    In order to ensure the reproducibility of the test and facilitate its adoption in different laboratories, the method utilizes a standardised mock-up.

    The fire suppression system is evaluated both as a complete system and in terms of components.

    Durability tests are adapted for harsh vehicle conditions and are adjusted to suit both on-road applications as well as off-road applications.

  • ., .
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    FIRE RISK MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE FOR VEHICLES AND MOBILE MACHINES2019Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The method described in this document introduces a procedure for management of fire hazards in vehicles and mobile machines. The method particularly provides elaborate support for identification of fire hazards in newly assembled vehicles and mobile machines as well as fire hazards resulting from operation, maintenance and retrofitting. The method presents how the identified hazards can be translated to estimations of fire risks and how these can be evaluated. Recommendations are also given on fire risk reduction measures for common designs, procedures and systems. This method is based on experience and knowledge gained through research, fire investigations and other industry professional services, as well as information provided by the industry. The method does not guarantee elimination of fires but regularly performed fire risk management will promote fire safety.

  • Johansson, Jan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lidberg, Martin
    Lantmäteriet, Sweden.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Ohlsson, Kent
    Lantmäteriet, Sweden.
    Löfgren, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jivall, Lotti
    Lantmäteriet, Sweden.
    Ning, Tong
    Lantmäteriet, Sweden.
    CLOSE-RTK 3: High-performance Real-TimeGNSS Services2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results from the third project of the CLOSE effort (Chalmers,Lantmäteriet, Onsala, RISE). The first project, CLOSE-RTK, investigated error sources inNetwork-RTK and simulated how to improve the performance. The results were used as a basisfor the densification, improvement and development of SWEPOS(https://swepos.lantmateriet.se/ ) during the last decade. The second project investigated how theionosphere effects the Network-RTK services.When the SWEPOS network are densified, the measurement uncertainty in the services arereduced. Thus, there is a need to continuously work in order to minimize effects from allsignificant error sources. Based on indications and experience from some 25 years operation ofSWEPOS, we have here focused on effects and error sources related to GNSS referencestations. Several new GNSS monuments are installed in the vicinity of the new Twin telescopesat the Onsala Space Observatory. Four good locations for permanent GNSS installations wereequipped with steel-grid masts serving as monuments for permanent GNSS installations. In twoof these, the installation has been untouched over a period extending over one year, while twohave been used to experiment with different installations of antennas, radomes, masthead, andthe environment of the receiving systems. The purpose of CLOSE-RTK III has been both toimprove the knowledge of the station-dependent effects in SWEPOS, and to quantify sucheffects by analyzing the collected observational data. Thus, the first work package has had theultimate goal to provide knowledge and recommendations when building a new GNSS stationand choosing the equipment to be used. The first work package also addresses the issue of somespecific station-dependent effects such as the monument stability as a function of airtemperature and sun radiation. The most important and significant results from these testsrelates to the effects of using different radomes and antennas. The influence of adding a tribrachbetween the antenna and the mast as well as adding a microwave-absorbing plate at the stationshas been investigated in detail. Furthermore, this study has looked in to the problem with birdslanding on the antennas in order to keep watch over the surrounding. A bird-detection algorithmhas been developed within the project.In second work package we investigate the necessity, and possibility, to develop methods forstation-dependent calibration in addition to the antenna-specific calibrations used to today.Since the performance of positioning services, e.g. Network-RTK, is steadily improved the errorsources related to the continuously operating reference stations may soon be limiting factors forfurther improvement of performance. Station dependent effects are thus important in highaccuracy GNSS positioning. Electrical coupling between the antenna and its near-fieldenvironment changes the characteristics of the antenna from what has been determined in e.g.absolute robot or chamber calibration.When using the presently available antenna models GNSS determination of the heightdifference between the SWEPOS pillar antennas and the surrounding reference antennas gave ~10 mm too low heights for the SWEPOS antennas. This error was derived from a comparisonwith conventional terrestrial surveys. The result varied significantly between days, and alsobetween different processing strategies. PCO/PCV errors derived from GNSS phase differencesshowed clear elevation-angle signatures that may cause systematic differences in the estimatedheight component and atmospheric delay, respectively. Electromagnetic coupling between theantenna and a metal plate below the antennas is probably contributing to the systematicPCO/PCV errors found.Starting already in 2008 and continued in this project we have developed methods andcarried out in-situ station calibration of the core permanent reference stations in SWEPOS. The station calibration intends to determine the electrical center of the GNSSantenna, as well as the PCV (phase center variations) when the antenna is installed at aSWEPOS station. The purpose of the calibration has been to examine the site-dependenteffects on the height determination as well as to establish site-dependent PCVs as acomplement to absolute calibrations of the antenna-radome pair.Our results have implications on a number of practical applications. To be mentioned isdetermination of the “local tie” between the GNSS reference point and the one from otherinstrumentation at fundamental geodetic stations. Usually, the L1 observable are used whileobserving the local GNSS networks in order to get as precise results as possible. But when usedin the IGS, the L3 (ionosphere-free) observable is used and also solving for troposphere delays.Thus, an error at the 1 cm level is easily introduced due to PCO/PCV errors.Since there are also other concepts emerging for precise real-time positioning, besides the so farused VRS-concept, the potential of these new concepts (MAC and PPP) are investigated inwork package three. Basically, the requirements from the infrastructure are invariant of thechosen concept if we aim for a certain level of performance. There is e.g. an ongoingdevelopment of real time methods for Precise Point Positioning (PPP) based on local or regionalaugmentation systems often referred to as PPP-RTK. The present development also includednew satellite signals and systems, thus, make available a three-frequency technique. The reportalso provides a schematic plan how such a service, based on PPP-RTK or rather Network-RTK,could be provided in the region of the Baltic Sea.Finally, the design of a high precision positioning service for the Baltic Sea are investigated.Motivation is that international vessel-traffic could be further optimized if the uncertainty ofvertical component in the navigation could be improved. The performance in the “Baltic Seanavigation service” would benefit from installation of some few off-shore GNSS referencestations that would be possible to locate to relatively shallow waters!

  • Franke, Ulrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Kunskap är militärmakt2019In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 36-44Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay explores notions of knowledge and intelligence in war, with a particular emphasis on knowledge about knowledge. It is argued that such second order knowledge deserves more attention in military training and education, especially in the context of maneuver warfare. More precisely, information operations within the maneuver warfare paradigm largely aim to present or withhold (second order) knowledge to the enemy in order to gain an advantage. This is elaborated using cultural and historical examples. Furthermore, the relevance of flaws and biases in human cognition and decision-making in war are discussed. In particular, it is argued that while tactical decision-making can be much improved upon through training and exercises, it is more difficult to train experts in strategic decision-making. The article is concluded with some reflections and recommendations for how to improve military training and education.

  • Nyström, Thomas
    RISE Viktoria, Sweden.
    Adaptive Design for Circular Business Models in the Automotive Manufacturing Industry2019Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The vision of a circular economy (CE) promises both profitability and eco-sustainability to industries, and can, from a material and energy resource flow perspective, be operationalized by combining three business and design strategies: closing loops; narrowing and slowing down resource flows by material recycling, improving resource efficiency; and by extending product life by reuse, upgrades and remanufacturing. These three strategies are straightforward ways for industries to radically reduce their use of virgin resources. From a product design perspective, it is doable. However, from a business perspective, it is no less than a revolution that is asked for, as most Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have, over time, designed their organizations for capturing value from selling goods in linear, flow-based business models. This thesis aims to contribute to the discourse about CE by exploring practical routes for operationalizing circular product design in a “stock-based” CBM. The approach is three-fold. Firstly, the role of design as a solution provider for existing business models is explored and illustrated by case studies and interviews from the automotive industry. Secondly, challenges and possibilities for manufacturing firms to embrace all three strategies for circularity are explored. Thirdly, implications for designing products suitable to stock-based CBMs are discussed. In spite of the vast interest in business model innovation, a circular economy, and how to design for a circular economy, there are still many practical, real-life barriers preventing adoption. This is especially true for designing products that combine all three of the circular strategies, and with regard to the risk of premature obsolescence of products owned by an OEM in a stock-based business model. Nevertheless, if products are designed to adapt to future needs and wants, business risks could be reduced. The main findings are that CE practices already have been implemented in some respects in the automotive industry, but those practices result in very low resource productivity. Substantial economic and material values are being lost due to the dominant business and design logic of keeping up resource flows into products sold. The primary challenge for incumbent OEMs is to manage, in parallel, both a process for circular business model innovation and a design process for future adaptable products.

  • Smith, Göran
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Region Västra Götaland, Sweden; K2 Swedish Centre for Public Transport, Sweden.
    Sochor, Jana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlsson, I. C. MariAnne
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Intermediary MaaS Integrators: A case study on hopes and fears2019In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, many policymakers and practitioners are searching for actions that could facilitate Mobility as a Service (MaaS) developments. A potential action, which has received a lot of attention, is to introduce Intermediary MaaS Integrators; that is intermediate actors that assemble the offerings from Transport Service Providers (TSPs) and distribute these to MaaS Operators. However, little is known about if and how TSPs and MaaS Operators would appreciate the introduction of Intermediary MaaS Integrators. To address this knowledge gap, this paper explores an attempt to establish a national Intermediary MaaS Integrator in Sweden. The contribution to transportation research is twofold. Firstly, the paper advances the conceptual understanding of Intermediary MaaS Integrators by identifying four defining dimensions: Activities, Management, Processes and Context. Secondly, it deepens the knowledge of Intermediary MaaS Integrators’ value propositions by detailing TSPs’ and prospective MaaS Operators’ hopes and fears vis-à-vis them. Lastly, practical implications for how to facilitate acceptance and adoption are proposed. Intermediary MaaS Integrators should only be introduced if basic incentives for using their services are in place, and if introduced, they should preferably: go beyond offering technical services; have clear, declared objectives; be impartial and capable actors; and carefully consider their launch strategies.

  • Karlsson, I. C. M.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mukhtar-Landgren, Dalia
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Smith, Göran
    Lund University, Sweden; Region Västra Götaland, Sweden; K2 Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, Sweden.
    Koglin, Till
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kronsell, Annica
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lund, E.
    Trivector, Sweden.
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sochor, Jana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Development and implementation of Mobility-as-a-Service: A qualitative study of barriers and enabling factors2019In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) has been argued as part of the solution to prevalent transport problems. However, progress from pilots to large-scale implementation has hitherto been slow. The aim of the research reported in this paper was to empirically and in-depth investigate how, and to what extent, different factors affect the development and implementation of MaaS. A framework was developed, with a basis in institutional theory and the postulation that formal as well informal factors on different analytical levels (macro, meso and micro) must be considered. The research was organised as a multiple case study in Finland and Sweden and a qualitative approach was chosen for data collection and analysis. A number of factors with a claimed impact on the development and implementation of MaaS was revealed. At the macro level, these factors included legislation concerning transport, innovation and public administration, and the presence (or not) of a shared vision for MaaS. At the meso level, (the lack of) appropriate business models, cultures of collaboration, and assumed roles and responsibilities within the MaaS ecosystem were identified as significant factors. At the micro level, people’s attitudes and habits were recognised as important factors to be considered. However, how the ‘S’ in MaaS fits (or not) the transport needs of the individual/household appears to play a more important role in adoption or rejection of MaaS than what has often been acknowledged in previous papers on MaaS. The findings presented in this paper provide several implications for public and private sector actors. Law-making authorities can facilitate MaaS developments by adjusting relevant regulations and policies such as transport-related subsidies, taxation policies and the definition of public transport. Regional and local authorities could additionally contribute to creating conducive conditions for MaaS by, for example, planning urban designs and transport infrastructures to support service-based travelling. Moreover, private actors have key roles to play in future MaaS developments, as both public and private transport services are needed if MaaS is to become a viable alternative to privately owned cars. Thus, the advance of MaaS business models that benefit all involved actors is vital for the prosperity of the emerging MaaS ecosystem.

  • Lindén, Hanna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rosén, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Baumann, Henrikke
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Product chain collaboration for sustainability: A business case for life cycle management2019In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle management (LCM) is frequently described as a holistic sustainability perspectivealong the product chain. It has mainly been a company internal practice.However, recent developments reveal a new type of LCM where companies collaboratein product‐chain‐specific initiatives. This raises questions concerning why corporationsextend “corporate LCM” toward “product chain LCM”. Here, we explorerationales and challenges for corporations engaging in one such coalition: The SustainableTransport Initiative. The study covers five companies in different productchain positions and practitioners in different corporate functions. The results showa broad range of rationales for engaging in product chain LCM, related both to selfinterestand a shared interest in the product chain. The importance of the “businesscase,” both for the individual companies and the product chain, is identified. Theimportance of sustainability managers as actors and as facilitators in discussionsbetween managers from different corporate functions is also identified.

  • Bahsi, Hayretdin
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Langfeldt Friberg, Even
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    The cyber-insurance market in Norway2019In: Information and Computer Security, E-ISSN 2056-4961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper aims to describe the cyber-insurance market in Norway but offers conclusions that are interesting to a wider audience.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study is based on semi-structured interviews with supply-side actors: six general insurance companies, one marine insurance company and two insurance intermediaries.

    Findings

    The Norwegian cyber-insurance market supply-side has grown significantly in the past two years. The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is found to have had a modest effect on the market so far but has been used by the supply-side as an icebreaker to discuss cyber-insurance with customers. The NIS Directive has had little or no impact on the Norwegian cyber-insurance market until now. Informants also indicate that Norway is still the least mature of the four Nordic markets.

    Practical implications

    Some policy lessons for different stakeholders are identified.

    Originality/value

    Empirical investigation of cyber-insurance is still rare, and the paper offers original insights on market composition and actor motivations, ambiguity of coverage, the NIS Directive and GDPR.

  • Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Supply chain guidelines: vision and ecodesignaction list2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This guideline aims to inspire fashion companies that wants to transform their supplychain to become sustainable. It intends to inform about the current available knowledgethat research can offer and hopefully provide some answers to the issues that refraincompanies from starting the transition.

    The first chapter gives an overview of environmental impacts associated with textileproduction in relation to the carrying capacity of the earth. The recommendations for thetextile industry to keep within the planetary boundaries are:

    • by 2030 reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from textile use by 50%, and by 2050be carbon-neutral;

    • by 2030 textile companies have knowledge of main suppliers’ water sources andrecipients, and the mean monthly river flows. By 2050, the control variable is suggestedto blue water withdrawal as % of mean monthly river flow and cooperation with otherlocal users.

    • by 2030 phase out all persistent organic pollutants (POP) from textile production andminimize use of chemicals as well as responsible handling of chemicals.

    The second chapter discuss the methodology used for developing the guidelines. Thetechnique of back casting was used to create a vision for how a sustainable supply chainliving up to the recommendations above could look like. The next step was to collect aseries of technical solutions that can reduce the environmental impacts, both via industrydialogue and literature sources.

    Finally, the Results chapter presents the actions that have been identified as feasible withtoday’s available technology and with high efficiency in reducing environmental impact.The results chapter also quantifies the effects that the proposed actions would have. Allproposed actions are linked to technologies which are available in bulk scale today.The guidance document ends with the Ecodesign Action List where the intent is for acompany to in a systematic way see what actions are possible, starting with the actionsof highest impact reduction potential first and saving the less efficient (but still efficient)actions for last.

  • Myrbeck, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. RISE Urban Water Management.
    Användning av recirkulerade fosforprodukter från avlopp – gödslingseffekt och upplägg av odlingstester2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the strategic work at RISE Research Institutes of Sweden to generate andspread knowledge on recovery and reuse of nutrients in Sweden. The aim of the report is to help ensure that high-quality products which are attractive for agricultural use emerge from Swedish wastewater treatment plants. The findings can be useful in further work on quality assurance of attractive recovered phosphorus products as fertilisers. Over 200 000 tons of dry matter sludge are produced annually at Swedish wastewater treatment plants, containing in total around 5400 tons of phosphorus that could potentially be reused inagriculture. Apart from direct spreading of bio-sludge on farmland, many different extraction technologies have been developed to recover and thus recycle phosphorus and other nutrients from wastewater and sludge. These different technologies extract phosphorus in different compounds with varying properties as a fertiliser in agriculture. The report reflects on and describes the properties of compounds produced by existing extraction technologies and estimates their value as fertilisers based on fertiliser experiments described in the literature.Two phosphorus compounds that appear particularly interesting are 1) phosphoric acid, a rawmaterial in the production of N-P-K and N-P products and certain forms of superphosphate, and 2) struvite, which has a fertiliser effect comparable to that of super-phosphate. However, it is difficult to assess and compare the fertiliser effect, or plant availability, of recovered phosphorus compounds in a fair manner. As soon as the compound touches the soil,all kinds of processes commence releasing phosphorus in plant-available forms or perhaps binding it in even stronger ways to soil minerals. The pH of the soil, but also its texture,composition of minerals, redox potential and current phosphorus concentration, are factors influencing the actual processes that take place. Other contextual factors such as climate also affect the complicated turnover of phosphorus in soil. However, once applied to farmland, all phosphorus compounds contribute to the pool of plant-available phosphorus in either the shortor long term. Phosphorus compounds that become available in the long term are valuable froma nutrient storage point of view. However, for a highly phosphorus-demanding crop on a phosphorus-deficient soil, rapid delivery of plant-available phosphorus is required. The variation between different types of soil is often great, but an attempt is made in this report to present amore general ranking of different recovered compounds from wastewater or sludge extraction(based on their function as a phosphorus fertiliser according to the literature). The table below summarises the compounds and provides a rough estimate of their general function as phosphorus fertiliser, where 1 indicates good fertilising effect and 4 indicates weak fertilising effect.

    [table, see fulltext]

    It is not only the fertiliser effect that determines the attractiveness of a product to farmers. Other decisive factors are competitive price, physical properties of the product that are compatible with modern cultivation techniques and machinery, and a well-defined nutrient content that is homogeneous and stable over time.Tests to assess and evaluate the fertiliser properties of recovered phosphorus products are currently based on varying and often simplified methodologies, meaning that data from different producers are difficult to compare. This report highlights the need for developing comparable and applicable tests for recovered phosphorus products. It also considers relevant parameters to analyse and suggests an appropriate test set-up. The plant availability and effect of nutrients in (recovered) fertiliser products can be assessed in three steps:

    1. Chemical determination and content quantification of phosphorus forms and environmental toxins.
    2. Greenhouse cultivation experiments.
    3. Field cultivation tests.
  • Johansson, Wilhelm
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Peralta, Albert
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Transparent TiO2 and ZnO Thin Films on Glass for UV Protection of PV Modules2019In: Frontiers in Materials, E-ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 6, article id 259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Failure of PV modules frequently occurs as a result of degradation of their encapsulation material by destructive UV radiation. Both the life expectancy and efficiency of PV modules can be improved by reducing the transmittance of the destructive UV radiation through the cover glass without compromising the transmittance in the visible wavelength region. In addition, if the absorbed UV photons can be down-shifted to wavelengths that can be more efficiently converted to electrical energy, an additional increase of the PV efficiency could be achieved. In this study we have investigated transparent ZnO and TiO2 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis on soda lime silicate float glass as functional layers on PV cover glass. The optical bandgap, UV-cutoff, UV-Vis transmittance, reflectivity (total and diffuse) and photoluminescence have been determined. The ZnO coating shifted the optical bandgap to longer wavelengths, resulting in a reduction of the transmittance of destructive UV radiation by up to ~85%. Distinct photoluminescence peaks at 377 nm and at 640 nm were observed for one of the ZnO samples. The TiO2 coated glasses also showed an increased UV cutoff, which resulted in a reduction of transmittance of destructive UV radiation by up to 75%. However, no photoluminescence peaks could be observed from the TiO2 films with 325 nm excitation laser, which can be explained by the fact that only indirect interband transitions are accessible at this excitation wavelength. Deposition of both ZnO and TiO2 coatings resulted in a reduction of the transmitted light convertible by PV modules, by up to 12.3 and 21.8%, respectively. The implication of the results is discussed in terms of lifetime expectancy and efficiency of PV modules.

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