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  • Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Granzell, Ann-Sofie
    Development of the urban and industrial symbiosis in western Mälardalen2018In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 73, p. 96-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a product service systems business model development perspective, this paper presents a case study of Västra Mälardalens industrial symbiosis, its maturity level and potentials for further development. The status and potentials of the symbiosis network, based on a survey, interviews and workshops, together with background statistics, is used to evaluate the potential improvement areas and suggest future research. The study contributes with application of evaluation models and confirms earlier research and in addition suggests future research in the field. The Symbiosis network has potential to be acting as innovation catalyst supporting companies to go beyond core business development.

  • Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hildenbrand, Jutta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Design for green lean building module production - Case study2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 594-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increasing societal need for temporary buildings, while construction industry faces resource and time efficiency challenges, factory assembly of modular buildings can be a solution. This case study at a start-up company uses experiences from assembly system design and eco-design literature to propose green lean design principles to be used in the design and development of building modules and their assembly stations. The eco-design strategy wheel is used as a basis and adapted for the assessment of green and lean building manufacturing.

  • Landström, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Almström, Peter
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Winroth, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Andersson, Carin
    Lund University.
    Ericson Öberg, Anna
    Volvo Construction Equipment AB.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    Mälardalen University.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University.
    Windmark, Christina
    Lund University.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF, Energi och miljö.
    A life cycle approach to business performance measurement systems2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 126-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtually every company has implemented a Business Performance Measurement System (BPMS) with the purpose of monitoring production and business performance and to execute the corporate strategy at all levels in a company. The purpose of this article is to shed light on common pitfalls related to the practical use of BPMS and further to present a life cycle model with the purpose of introducing structured approach to avoiding the pitfalls. The article contributes to further development of the BPMS life cycle concept and practical examples of how it can be used.

  • Allison, R.S.
    et al.
    York University, Canada.
    Brunnstrom, Kjell
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Chandler, D.M.
    Shizuoka University, Japan.
    Colett, H.
    Intel Corp, US.
    Corriveau, P.
    Intel Corp, US.
    Daly, S.
    Dolby Laboratories Inc, US.
    Goel, J.
    Qualcomm Technologies, Inc, US.
    Long, J.Y.
    Intel Corp, US.
    Wilcox, L.M.
    York University, Canada.
    Yaacob, Y.
    Shizuoka University, Japan.
    Yang, S. N.
    Pacific University, US.
    Zhang, Y.
    Xi’an Jiaotong University, China.
    Perspectives on the definition of visually lossless quality for mobile and large format displays2018In: Journal of Electronic Imaging, Vol. 27, no 5, article id 053035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in imaging and display engineering have given rise to new and improved image and videoapplications that aim to maximize visual quality under given resource constraints (e.g., power, bandwidth).Because the human visual system is an imperfect sensor, the images/videos can be represented in a mathematicallylossy fashion but with enough fidelity that the losses are visually imperceptible—commonly termed“visually lossless.” Although a great deal of research has focused on gaining a better understanding ofthe limits of human vision when viewing natural images/video, a universally or even largely accepted definitionof visually lossless remains elusive. Differences in testing methodologies, research objectives, and targetapplications have led to multiple ad-hoc definitions that are often difficult to compare to or otherwise employ inother settings. We present a compendium of technical experiments relating to both vision science and visualquality testing that together explore the research and business perspectives of visually lossless image quality,as well as review recent scientific advances. Together, the studies presented in this paper suggest that a singledefinition of visually lossless quality might not be appropriate; rather, a better goal would be to establish varyinglevels of visually lossless quality that can be quantified in terms of the testing paradigm.

  • Lundqvist, Sven- Olof
    et al.
    IIC, Sweden.
    Seifert, Stefan
    Scientes Mondium UG (haftungsbeschränkt), Ruppertskirchen, Germany.
    Grahn, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Garci­a-Gil, Maria Rosario
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, SLU, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC), Umeå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Bo
    skogforsk, Sweden.
    Seifert, Thomas
    Scientes Mondium UG (haftungsbeschränkt), Ruppertskirchen, Germany.
    Age and weather effects on between and within ring variations of number, width and coarseness of tracheids and radial growth of young Norway spruce2018In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 137, no 5, p. 719-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Annual growth, fibre and wood properties of Norway spruce are all under strong influence from genetics, age and weather. They change dynamically, particularly at young ages. Most genetic research and tree improvement programs are based on data from this most dynamic phase of the life of trees, affected by differences in weather among sites and years. In the work presented, influences of age and weather were investigated and modelled at the detail of annual rings and at the sub-tree ring level of earlywood, transitionwood and latewood. The data used were analysed from increment cores sampled at age 21 years from almost 6000 Norway spruce trees of known genetic origin, grown on two sites in southern Sweden. The traits under investigation were radial growth, cell widths, cell numbers, cell wall thickness and coarseness as a measure of biomass allocation at cell level. General additive mixed models (GAMMs) were fitted to model the influences of age, local temperature and precipitation. The best models were obtained for number of tracheids formed per year, ring width, average radial tracheid width in earlywood, and ring averages for tangential tracheid width and coarseness. Considering the many sources behind the huge variation, the explained part of the variability was high. For all traits, models were developed using both total tree age and cambial age (ring number) to express age. Comparisons indicate that the number of cell divisions and ring width are under stronger control of tree age, but the other traits under stronger control of cambial age. The models provide a basis to refine data prior to genetic evaluations by compensating for estimated differences between sites and years related to age and weather rather than genetics. Other expected applications are to predict performance of genotypes in relation to site or climate and simulation of climate change scenarios.

  • Furusjö, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Ma, Chunyan
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Carvalho, Lara
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and novel syngas cleaning. Part 1: Gasifier performance2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 157, p. 96-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that alkali addition in entrained flow biomass gasification can increase char conversion and decrease tar and soot formation through catalysis. This paper investigates two other potential benefits of alkali addition: increased slag flowability and in situ sulfur capture. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show that addition of 2–8% alkali catalyst to biomass completely changes the chemical domain of the gasifier slag phase to an alkali carbonate melt with low viscosity. This can increase feedstock flexibility and improve the operability of an entrained flow biomass gasification process. The alkali carbonate melt also leads to up to 90% sulfur capture through the formation of alkali sulfides. The resulting reduced syngas sulfur content can potentially simplify gas cleaning required for catalytic biofuel production. Alkali catalyst recovery and recycling is a precondition for the economic feasibility of the proposed process and is effected through a wet quench. It is shown that the addition of Zn for sulfur precipitation in the alkali recovery loop enables the separation of S, Ca and Mg from the recycle. For high Si and Cl biomass feedstocks, an alternative separation technology for these elements may be required to avoid build-up.

  • Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundling, Catherine
    School of Social Sciences, Södertörn University, Alfred Nobels allé 7, 141 89 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Emardson, Ragne
    Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University college Borås, 501 90, Borås, Sweden.
    Psychometric measurement and decision-making of accessibilityin public transport for older persons with functional limitations2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vulnerable travellers face challenges in the transport environment potentially leading to decreased mobility. A research goal is to find out how to improve railway accessibility by reducing barriers for persons with functional limitations. A method for measuring accessibility has earlier been developed where travel barriers are assigned different weights based on persons’ functional ability and travel behaviour. The more weight placed on a certain barrier, the less accessible and thus less probable a particular journey will be. In the present work, these travel-barrier weights are analysed psychometrically based on the replies to questions about ease or difficulty of accessing travel with various barriers in responses given by 162 older long-distance travellers. An invariant measure theory approach (Rasch) is employed that allows (i) transformation of ordinal questionnaire data onto a quantitative interval scale; and (ii) separate measures of barrier level of challenge and person capability. A principal component analysis revealed three main clusters: 1) mainly ergonomically related questions; 2) mainly informational/cognitive; while cluster 3) is a mix of these two. Correlations are investigated between perceived accessibility and functional ability, and between person capability and functional ability. Independent sources of measurement uncertainty (e.g. under-estimation of scores) are distinguished from separate estimates of task challenge and individual travel capability. These independent sources are accounted for in estimates of reliability and validity of the various measures.

  • Nord, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    D6.17 Communication and Dissemination Plan M3-M12: Project: PRoPART2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The

    objective of PRoPART is the development and demonstration of a high availability positioning solution for connected automated driving applications. It aims to develop and enhance an existing RTK (Real Time Kinematic) software solution developed by Waysure, by exploiting the distinguished features of Galileo signals as well as combining it with other positioning and sensor technologies. Besides the use of vehicle on board sensors, PRoPART will also use a low-cost Ultra Wideband (UWB) ranging solution for redundancy and robustness in areas where the coverage of GNSS is poor e.g. in tunnels or in urban canyons. In order to define the correct requirements for the PRoPART combined positioning solution, a cooperative automated vehicle application will be defined and developed. The vehicle application will rely on the high availability positioning solution and use it to couple its ADAS system with V2X and aggregate information received from other connected vehicles and Road Side Units (RSU).

    The main objective of WP6 Task T6.2 and Task T6.3

    is to spread PRoPART results among the main target groups identified during the development of the business plan studies. PRoPART dissemination activities aim to raise awareness about its real added value in technical terms.

    Specific objectives:

    • Definition of an agile communication strategy to be adapted to the different target groups and messages.
    • Preparation of the corporative image and a set of materials for the promotion and comprehensive dissemination.
    • Monitoring and execution of the communication plan with a continuous penetration in the main target groups with tailored messages.

    Referring to the above mentioned aims PRoPART’s Communication and Dissemination plan addresses the following key issues: identification of stakeholders and project’s key impact fields; specific dissemination tools (logo, website, publications, conferences, events, press media, leaflets and posters, videos, cooperation with other projects, social networking, etc.). Finally, it will focus on the most relevant procedures related to communication and dissemination activities

  • Nord, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    D6.2 Project Website: Project: PRoPART2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The PRoPART public website has been implemented in month 3 of the project, and will be maintained over the lifetime of the project. The internet portal works as communication platform to assist the coordination of the project and its activities.

    An individual domain has been acquired to host the website. The link to this PRoPART website is:

    http://www.propart-project.eu/

    Within the design phase of the website, perspectives from both specialized and non-specialized visitors have been considered in order to develop the interface.

    The website will be the main communication tool for the project, where all the publicly available dissemination materials will be published in a timely manner. The website is an interactive environment that will give access to all the publishable development of PRoPART. It will give a very direct link to the main results and to the hottest project news.

    Besides, this website gives a link to the objectives, partnership, activities and events related with the project, and it is planned to give access to all the aspects regarding the new technologies, best practices and recommendations for robust positioning for automated vehicles gathered from the project development. Contributions from the partners will be highly important to maintain the project’s website updated, in order to improve the website positioning in search engines and to reflect an active attitude to Internet users. In addition, partners are asked to link their website and platforms to the website of PRoPART project. In this sense, a SEO positioning analysis will be performed to ensure higher visibility in web search engines.

    The following points describe the different sections

    and functionalities of the website, supported by screenshots to better understand its use.

  • Hoxell, Fredrik
    et al.
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Zhang, Liang
    Baselabs GmbH, Germany.
    D1.1 Report on Vehicle Application Use Cases and Application Scenarios: Project: PRoPART2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     D 1 . 11 Summary of the PRoPART projectThe objective of the project ‘PRoPART’ is the development and demonstration of a high availability positioning solution for connected automated driving applications. It aims to develop and enhance an existing RTK (Real Time Kinematic) software solution developed by Waysure by exploiting the distinguished features of Galileo signals as well as combining it with other positioning and sensor technologies. Also, the possibility to authenticate the navigation message of Galileo and other navigation satellite systems through Open Service – Navigation Message Authentication (OS-NMA), adding resistance to certain spoofing attacks, will be explored during the project. Besides the use of vehicle on board sensors, PRoPART will also use a low-cost Ultra-Wideband (UWB) ranging solution for redundancy and robustness in areas where the coverage of GNSS is poor (e.g. in tunnels or in urban canyons). In order to define the correct requirements for the PRoPART combined positioning solution, a cooperative automated vehicle application will be defined and developed. The vehicle application will rely on the high availability positioning solution and use it to couple its ADAS system with V2X and aggregate information received from other connected vehicles and Road Side Units (RSU). As there will be a transition period where a lot of vehicles are neither connected nor automated, solutions having high impact during low penetration are in focus. Therefore, PRoPART will implement an RSU with high-precision positioning and use both UWB as well as traffic monitoring to supply ranging, object perception and EGNSS RTK correction data via ETSI ITS-G5 to the connected automated vehicle so it can make safe decisions based on robust data. This means that PRoPART also will implement perception layer sensor fusion that uses information collected from external sensors as well as information from both the on-board vehicle sensors and the high availability positioning solution. PRoPART will also exploit possibilities to distribute EGNSS RTK correction data from the RSU to the vehicle. The main objectives and their related impacts can be summarized as follows: Precise positioning with EGNSS:o Deeply Coupled RTK Positioning using the Galileo E1 and E5 signals for carrier based positioning as well as the GPS L1, L2 and L5 signals.o Increased robustness with EGNSS using E1 and E5 signalso Performance indicators: Initialization and re-initialization time, vehicle position, velocity and attitude accuracy in specific use case environments. High Availability and Robust Positioning:o Combining EGNSS RTK positioning with UWB ranging and vehicle motion sensors providing deeply coupled feedbacko EGNSS RTK correction data from RSUo RSU with traffic monitoring capabilities. The project aims to achieve objects detected by an RSU to be aggregated by an automated vehicle (ECU) with an overall latency of less than 150 ms and combined location error below 2m.o Performance indicators: Availability of accurate, robust position estimate in specific use case environments. Cooperative Automated Vehicle Application:o Increased cooperation between automated and non-automated vehicles.o Safer decisions for traffic manoeuvreso More cost efficient high precision positioningWithin this project, these ambitious goals will be demonstrated for a collaborative automated lane change function using the AstaZero proving ground. An expressed goal of the project is the progression on the technology readiness level (TRL) scale of user function specific components for use in automated driving (AD) applications. While the maturity of such subsystems has a direct impact on automated driving systems (ADS) and will represent important steps towards commercialization, the automated driving system itself is not a target for such TRL progression. The ADS to be used in the demonstrations will be somewhere between partial automation and conditional automation, or level 2 and 3, on the SAE scale of road vehicle automation.

  • Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg.
    Fighting flameless fires: Initiating and extinguishing self-sustainedsmoldering fires in wood pellets2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires represent domestic, environmental and industrial hazards. This flameless form of combustion is more easily initiated than flaming, and is also more persistent and difficult to extinguish. The growing demand for non-fossil fuels has increased the use of solid biofuels such as biomass. This represents a safety challenge, as biomass self-ignition can cause smoldering fires, flaming fires or explosions.

    Smoldering and extinguishment in granular biomass was studied experimentally. The set-up consisted of a cylindrical fuel container of steel with thermally insulated side walls. The container was closed at the bottom, open at the top and heated from below by a hot surface. Two types of wood pellets were used as fuel, with 0.75-1.5 kg samples.

    Logistic regression was used to determine the transition region between non-smoldering and self-sustained smoldering experiments, and to determine the influence of parameters. Duration of external heating was most important for initiation of smoldering. Sample height was also significant, while the type of wood pellet was near-significant and fuel container height was not.

    The susceptibility of smoldering to changes in air supply was studied. With a small gap at the bottom of the fuel bed, the increased air flow in the same direction as the initial smoldering front (forward air flow) caused a significantly more intense combustion compared to the normal set-up with opposed air flow.

    Heat extraction from the combustion was studied using a water-cooled copper pipe. Challenges with direct fuel-water contact (fuel swelling, water channeling and runoff) were thus avoided. Smoldering was extinguished in 7 of 15 cases where heat extraction was in the same range as the heat production from combustion. This is the first experimental proof-of-concept of cooling as an extinguishment method for smoldering fires.

    Marginal differences in heating and cooling separated smoldering from extinguished cases; the fuel bed was at a heating-cooling balance point. Lower cooling levels did not lead to extinguishment, but cooling caused more predictable smoldering, possibly delaying the most intense combustion. Also observed at the balance point were pulsating temperatures; a form of long-lived (hours), macroscopic synchronization not previously observed in smoldering fires.

    For practical applications, cooling could be feasible for prevention of temperature escalation from self-heating in industrial storage units. This study provides a first step towards improved fuel storage safety for biomass. 

  • Brunnstrom, Kjell
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Barkowsky, Marcus
    Deggendorf Institute of Technology (DIT), University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf, Germany.
    Statistical quality of experience analysis: on planning the sample size and statistical significance testing2018In: Journal of Electronic Imaging (JEI), ISSN 1017-9909, E-ISSN 1560-229X, Vol. 27, no 5, article id 053013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how an experimenter can balance errors in subjective video quality tests betweenthe statistical power of finding an effect if it is there and not claiming that an effect is there if the effect is not there,i.e., balancing Type I and Type II errors. The risk of committing Type I errors increases with the number ofcomparisons that are performed in statistical tests. We will show that when controlling for this and at thesame time keeping the power of the experiment at a reasonably high level, it is unlikely that the number oftest subjects that are normally used and recommended by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU),i.e., 15 is sufficient but the number used by the Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG), i.e., 24 is more likelyto be sufficient. Examples will also be given for the influence of Type I error on the statistical significance ofcomparing objective metrics by correlation. We also present a comparison between parametric and nonparametricstatistics. The comparison targets the question whether we would reach different conclusions on the statisticaldifference between the video quality ratings of different video clips in a subjective test, based on thecomparison between the student T-test and the Mann–Whitney U-test. We found that there was hardly a differencewhen few comparisons are compensated for, i.e., then almost the same conclusions are reached. Whenthe number of comparisons is increased, then larger and larger differences between the two methods arerevealed. In these cases, the parametric T-test gives clearly more significant cases, than the nonparametrictest, which makes it more important to investigate whether the assumptions are met for performing a certaintest.

  • Franke, Ulrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Cyber Insurance Against Electronic Payment Service Outages: A Document Study of Terms and Conditions from Electronic Payment Service Providers and Insurance Companies2018In: Security and Trust Management: 14th International Workshop, STM 2018, Barcelona, Spain, September 6–7, 2018, Proceedings / [ed] Sokratis K. Katsikas & Cristina Alcaraz, Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature Switzerland AG , 2018, p. 73-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Society is becoming increasingly dependent on IT services. One example is the dependence of retailers on electronic payment services. This article investigates the terms and conditions offered by three electronic payment service providers, finding that they only guarantee best effort availability. As potential mitigation, five cyber insurance policies are studied from the perspective of coverage of electronic payment service outages. It is concluded that cyber insurance does indeed give some protection, but that coverage differs between insurers and between different policy options offered. Thus, a retailer who wishes to purchase cyber insurance should take care to understand what is on offer and actively select appropriate coverage.

  • Nord, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    HiFi Visual Target - D5.2 Final Report2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and Autonomous Driving (AD) vehicles rely heavily on sensors for achieving their goal of protecting the driver and passengers from potentially dangerous situations. Optical sensors are used to measure locations and velocities of objects at distances of up to 150 meters. Optical sensors could be cameras (for visible light or IR) used to detect either objects or road features (like e.g. road edges and markings). They are a common choice for high-end ADAS and are found in sensor sets of most AD vehicles.

    To ensure reliable performance of object detection, extensive testing of optical sensors is required. In vehicle testing performed at test tracks like AstaZero, 3D soft car targets are used for safety reasons. However, due to non-perfect shape and materials, the optical characteristics of 3D soft car targets may differ considerably from that of real vehicles in traffic, resulting in different detection performance, and hence different activation of the functions. Moreover, during tests the quality of the 3D soft car targets deteriorates due to repeated impacts and reassembly of the targets, which implies that there is a need of methods for securing the quality of the 3D soft car targets over time.

    By addressing these challenges, the goal of the project has been to contribute to improved testing methods of optical and geometrical characteristics of 3D soft car targets by:

    • developing measurement methods and specifying measurement setups for the optical and geometrical characteristics of 3D soft car targets;
    • developing simplified measurement methods for quality check on 3D soft car targets to secure the quality over time;
    • providing input to international standardization regarding methods for measurement of optical and geometrical characteristics of real and soft car targets.

    The results include test of different measurement methods, different 3D soft car targets as well as real vehicles and also an accelerated ageing test of a 3D soft car target from DRi.

  • Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Emissions of particles and organic compounds from small and medium scaled biomass combustion2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of biomass for domestic heating is common in some parts of the world. Biomass is a Renewable Energy Source (RES) and it is considered as a climate friendly fuel since it is a CO

    2 neutral energy source. However, combustion of wood biomass in the residential sector is a main contributor to pollution of the ambient air, mainly in terms of fine particles. This is a severe health problem and needs to be addressed to improve the air quality. There is also a gap between calculated air quality particle concentrations using the available emission data, measured at the stack, that needs to be addressed. The concentrations of organic particles in the atmosphere are higher than expected from reported emission factors, but there is also a gap between emission factors registered in different countries, emphasising the need of similar standards for individual countries, or at least more information around the emission data.

    The residential combustion of wood biomasses is characterized by incomplete processes leading to high concentrations of gases and particles containing both organic and inorganic substances. The formation of organic particles is a temperature dependent process where Semi Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) condense on solid particles or form particles after nucleation. Thus, the temperature where particle emissions are measured is crucial to the result. There are many different standard methods for the measurement of combustion generated particle emission, some differ between different combustion sources. Most standards focus on the most straight forward measurement methods, collecting particles directly from the hot fumes, while in other standards the particles collection is after a dilution of the exhaust gases, taking into account the condensation of organic gases.

    In particularly for residential biomass heating appliances there is no European harmonized standard for measuring particles and a few Member States provided with own method (to be performed during laboratory type testing). The methods are different each other: one method is adapted from the standard used to measure particles produced by big plant fed with fossil fuels (just collecting solid particles at high temperatures), the other method is based on the dilution of sampled gases to collect solid and condensed particles.

    The aim of the present work is to provide background information both on different emission standards used in combustion appliances and on the development of the particles from the combustion zone to the ambient air at a larger distance from the source. The development of the particles change the amount of particles originating form biomass combustion by both number and mass. Input data for this study is taken from the literature and from a survey sent to laboratories engaged in emission measurement from small to medium scaled biomass combustion facilities.

  • Stolen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Stensaas, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Solcelleteknologi og brannsikkerhet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Norway is increasing. In this study, fire safety challenges of PV technology are studied. Fire ignition, fire spread and fire extinguishing are investigated. The study forms a knowledge base for safeguarding fire safety during assembly, operation and during firefighting efforts, and to form unified and clear regulations. The results show:

    Fire ignition: PV installations contain many electric connections which can be potential ignition sources, as well as a small volume of combustible materials. These provide everything needed to initiate a fire. It is important that all connections in a PV installation are robust and can withstand the stress they are exposed to throughout their lifetime, without causing malfunction that could cause a fire.

    Fire spread: For building attached photovoltaics, there are cavities between the module and the building. If there is a fire in this cavity, the produced heat could be trapped, which could lead to a more rapid and extensive fire spread than if the building surface were uncovered. In large scale tests with PV modules mounted on a roof covering, the fire spread under the whole area covered with modules, but stopped when approaching the edge. This demonstrates the importance of sectioning when mounting PV installations, to avoid fire spread to the whole roof. An option is to use materials with limited combustibility as roof covering below the PV module, to withstand the increased heat exposure from the PV modules. The cavity between module and building could potentially also alter the air flow along the building, which in turn could affect the fire spread.

    Firefighting: Firefighters need information on whether there is a PV installation in the building, and where there are electrical components. During firefighting efforts, the fire service must consider the danger of direct contact, and danger of arcs and other faults that could lead to new ignition points. Fresh water can be used as an extinguishing agent. This must be applied from at least 1 meter distance with spread beam and at least 5 meters distance with a focused beam. PV modules can complicate fire extinguishing as they represent a physical barrier between the fire fighter and the area to extinguish, and by creating areas which should be avoided due to danger of components with voltage. When these points are considered, building attached photovoltaics should not be a problem.

    Further work: For building attached photovoltaics, there is little research on vertical mounting (on facades), and on how changed fire dynamics could affect fire spread and extinguishing. Also, today there is an increasing use of building integrated photovoltaics, which could potentially give many new challenges for fire safety and for regulations, as these are a part of the building and at the same time electrical components. German statistics indicate that there is an increased fire risk for these types of installations, compared to building attached photovoltaics, making this an important focus area for further work.

  • Boström, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hofmann-Böllinghaus, Anja
    BAM, Germany.
    Colwell, Sarah
    BRE, UK.
    Chiva, Roman
    Efectis, France.
    Toth, Peter
    EMI, Hungary.
    Moder, Istvan
    EMI, Hungary.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. RISE.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Development of a European approach to assess the fire performance of facades2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this project was to address a request from the Standing Committee of Construction (SCC) to provide EC Member States regulators with a means to regulate the fire performance of façade systems based on a European approach agreed by SCC.

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