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  • Myrbeck, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. RISE Urban Water Management.
    Användning av recirkulerade fosforprodukter från avlopp – gödslingseffekt och upplägg av odlingstester2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the strategic work at RISE Research Institutes of Sweden to generate andspread knowledge on recovery and reuse of nutrients in Sweden. The aim of the report is to help ensure that high-quality products which are attractive for agricultural use emerge from Swedish wastewater treatment plants. The findings can be useful in further work on quality assurance of attractive recovered phosphorus products as fertilisers. Over 200 000 tons of dry matter sludge are produced annually at Swedish wastewater treatment plants, containing in total around 5400 tons of phosphorus that could potentially be reused inagriculture. Apart from direct spreading of bio-sludge on farmland, many different extraction technologies have been developed to recover and thus recycle phosphorus and other nutrients from wastewater and sludge. These different technologies extract phosphorus in different compounds with varying properties as a fertiliser in agriculture. The report reflects on and describes the properties of compounds produced by existing extraction technologies and estimates their value as fertilisers based on fertiliser experiments described in the literature.Two phosphorus compounds that appear particularly interesting are 1) phosphoric acid, a rawmaterial in the production of N-P-K and N-P products and certain forms of superphosphate, and 2) struvite, which has a fertiliser effect comparable to that of super-phosphate. However, it is difficult to assess and compare the fertiliser effect, or plant availability, of recovered phosphorus compounds in a fair manner. As soon as the compound touches the soil,all kinds of processes commence releasing phosphorus in plant-available forms or perhaps binding it in even stronger ways to soil minerals. The pH of the soil, but also its texture,composition of minerals, redox potential and current phosphorus concentration, are factors influencing the actual processes that take place. Other contextual factors such as climate also affect the complicated turnover of phosphorus in soil. However, once applied to farmland, all phosphorus compounds contribute to the pool of plant-available phosphorus in either the shortor long term. Phosphorus compounds that become available in the long term are valuable froma nutrient storage point of view. However, for a highly phosphorus-demanding crop on a phosphorus-deficient soil, rapid delivery of plant-available phosphorus is required. The variation between different types of soil is often great, but an attempt is made in this report to present amore general ranking of different recovered compounds from wastewater or sludge extraction(based on their function as a phosphorus fertiliser according to the literature). The table below summarises the compounds and provides a rough estimate of their general function as phosphorus fertiliser, where 1 indicates good fertilising effect and 4 indicates weak fertilising effect.

    [table, see fulltext]

    It is not only the fertiliser effect that determines the attractiveness of a product to farmers. Other decisive factors are competitive price, physical properties of the product that are compatible with modern cultivation techniques and machinery, and a well-defined nutrient content that is homogeneous and stable over time.Tests to assess and evaluate the fertiliser properties of recovered phosphorus products are currently based on varying and often simplified methodologies, meaning that data from different producers are difficult to compare. This report highlights the need for developing comparable and applicable tests for recovered phosphorus products. It also considers relevant parameters to analyse and suggests an appropriate test set-up. The plant availability and effect of nutrients in (recovered) fertiliser products can be assessed in three steps:

    1. Chemical determination and content quantification of phosphorus forms and environmental toxins.
    2. Greenhouse cultivation experiments.
    3. Field cultivation tests.
  • Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Ormarsson, Sigurdur
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Impact of surface pressure on the shape stability of laminated veneer products2019In: Proceedings ofthe 15th Annual Meeting ofthe Northern European Network for Wood Science and EngineeringWSE2019 / [ed] Maria Fredriksson, Lund: Lund University , 2019, p. 164-166Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Larsson, Krister
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Digital verktygslåda för god ljudmiljö i stationssamhällen2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Densification around railway stations and near infrastructure can lead to benefits from the climate and resource efficiency point of view. Living near infrastructure nodes can reduce car dependency and enable more sustainable travel. At the same time, noise from rail traffic causes annoyance and negative health effects for residents, and densification can therefore lead to an increase in the number of people exposed to noise, with increased social costs as a result.

    The purpose of the project is to facilitate the implementation of noise measures in the infrastructure at railway stations, thereby enabling climate smart and sustainable densification in public transport-related locations, as well as efficient use of resources at the source. The goal is to compile a digital toolbox with methodology and sample collection for demonstration of technical noise-reducing measures in railway infrastructure.

    The digital toolbox contains auralization of different track-close noise measures for different train types, which can be used as a complement to traditional noise predictions to create a more realistic experience of the sound environment. The auralizations are based on recordings of train passages in station-close locations, which have been corrected with calculated insertion losses for the various measures.

    In addition, the socio-economic costs of noise and the corresponding benefits for a noise measure are calculated using updated valuation models based on WHO's latest recommendations. The results are compared with the current official Swedish valuation model ASEK.

    The project uses co-creation to develop the tool where design and content are prioritized at a workshop together with the intended target group. The tool is openly available and an executable version for PC can be downloaded via https://sourceforge.net/projects/ljudmiljo-i-stationssamhallen/. The source code is openly accessible via https://github.com/larssonkrister/Stationsnara/.

  • Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Haraldson, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Karlsson, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Olsson, Eddie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Accelerating Acquisition in an Open Innovation Ecosystem2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime transports are to be regarded as a self-organized ecosystem (Kay et al., 1999) characterized by sub-optimization where historically each actor to has optimized its own operations, often giving rise to inefficiencies as a whole. In recent years however, digital transformation has challenged this by providing means for enhanced transparency in data sharing and situational awareness, enabling better coordination and improved efficiency on the whole (Lind et al. 2018a). Digital transformation drives the possibilities of creating new value by enabling higher degrees of connectivity between actors, digitally twin physical objects, drawing patterns of behaviour based on extensive sets of historical data, as well as harmonizing data sharing through standardized interfaces and communication protocols (e.g. Almirall and Casadesus-Masanell 2010; Gassman et al. 2010; Lakhani et al. 2006). To break existing patterns of behaviour and to avoid the creation of proprietary solutions that feed sub-optimization, there is a need for new inspiration and perspectives that capitalize on the opportunities that digital transformation provides. From an open innovation point of view, this means that innovators both having experience from the sector as well as from other sectors would come together, come up with, and provide new applications not previously possible or never thought about before. A core capability that the ecosystem needs to develop and ensure is data streams made accessible for those that can provide new applications aimed for the single actor and/or clusters of actors, within or outside the maritime sector (Lind et al. 2018).This has also been one of the objectives for Port Collaborative Decision Making (PortCDM), which is a concept that provides guidelines and standards for the data exchange within and between ports, between ships and ports, and between ports and hinterland operators (Lind et al 2018). Such data exchange is necessary if enhanced efficiency during port call operations is to be achieved but also facilitates open 

    innovation within the maritime sector. In order to realise that potential, a purposive transfer of knowledge between the established actors and potential new service providers has to be established (Chesbrough 2006). We therefore set out to explore How can open innovation intermediaries accelerate acquisition in an ecosystem through the management and throughput of knowledge transfer?We address the question through a longitudinal study by applying an action research approach involving actors from the local port and students from three bachelor programs. Before we describe the specifics of the research methodology, we outline our theoretical framework in terms of how knowledge transfer can be framed within an open innovation ecosystem. After the research methodology we detail the five iterations and then discuss the effect on knowledge transfer within the ecosystem. Finally, we conclude and give directions on future research.

  • Karltorp, Kersti
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Bergek, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ulmanen, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Statens roll för klimatomställning i processindustrin: Utmaningar och möjligheter för socioteknisk omställning i svensk industri för framställning av järn- och stål, cement, raffinaderiprodukter och kemikalier2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste åren har takten och ambitionsnivån i klimatarbetet höjts vilket bland annat resulterat i det internationella Parisavtalet och ett nationellt klimatmål - om att Sverige senast år 2045 inte ska ha några nettoutsläpp av växthusgaser till atmosfären, för att därefter uppnå negativa utsläpp. För att nå dessa ambitiösa mål krävs omfattande samhällsförändringar inom alla sektorer inte minst industrin som i Sverige står för drygt 30% av växthusgasutsläpp. Framställning av järn- och stål,

    cement, raffinaderiprodukter och kemikalier orsakar den största delen av dessa utsläpp. Under de senaste decennierna har olika åtgärder genomförts för att minska dessa utsläpp, men med undantag för pappers- och massaindustrin är växthusgas-utsläpp i stort sett på samma nivå som 1990. För att nå målen krävs en helt annan utveckling än vad som skett de senaste decennierna - mycket kraftiga utsläppsminskningar måste ske på mycket kort tid.

    Regeringen har givit Energimyndigheten i Uppdrag att genomföra innovationsfrämjande insatser för att minska process-industrins utsläpp av växthusgaser (N2016/06369/IFK). Inom ramen för detta regeringsuppdrag har forskningsinstitutet RISE, Chalmers och Jönköpings Internationella Handelshögskola fått ett uppdrag som syftar till att ta fram ett kunskaps-underlag om hur staten och andra aktörer kan stimulera en omställning mot kraftigt minskade växthusgasutsläpp inom svensk processindustri. Resultatet av detta uppdrag presenteras i denna rapport och de mest centrala slutsatserna presenteras i denna sammanfattning.

    Rapporten är avgränsad till analyser av de processindustrier som står för störst andel fossila växthusgasutsläpp i Sverige:

    järn- och stålindustrin (i denna rapport benämnd stålindustrin), cementindustrin, raffinaderiindustrin och kemiindustrin. För varje industri analyseras några exempel på tekniska alternativ (i denna rapport kallade omställningsalternativ) som kan leda till en omställning i form av sänkta processutsläpp av fossila växthusgaser. Effektivare användning av material samt högre grad av cirkulära flöden, så som ökad återvinning och ökad återanvändning, kan bidra till att sänka utsläppen. För att ge underlag för en bredare reflektion kring denna typ av alternativ inkluderas även några exempel på detta i analyserna.

    Analyserna i denna rapport utgår från ett sociotekniskt systemperspektiv på omställningar av industrier. Det innebär att teknisk förändring ses i ett större sammanhang, där tekniska system, aktörsstrukturer och institutioner utvecklas tillsammans i en iterativ process som kännetecknas av lärande och experimenterande men också betydande trögheter. Statens roll i sådana omställningsprocesser kan dels vara att stimulera teknisk utveckling i linje med samhällets långsiktiga mål (t.ex. hållbar utveckling), dels att låsa upp eller fasa ut etablerade strukturer för att ge plats för nya, mer önskvärda tekniker.

  • Håkansson, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Thuvander, Liane
    Chalmers Univeristy of Technology, Sweden.
    SOL:AR: Beställarstöd för Solenergiinvesteringar genom avancerad visualisering2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The solar energy business has developed rapidly in Sweden in recent years, but so farmost companies and individuals have chosen to install solar cells on roofs. Anotherrelatively unexplored resource that we argue offer potential and where we see anemerging trend for various solar solutions, is building facades. In contexts where lackof space prevents building new or standalone solar energy installments, facades canstill be used for a range of purposes, e.g., generating renewable solar power and/orprovide space for shading devices and thereby reduced demand for cooling. In theSOL:AR project we have investigated how a future digital visualization tool could makeit easier for clients who are considering solar solutions, including categories ofproducts like solar cells, building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) and solar shading.How could a digital tool give a quick insight into e.g., the profitability of solar cells or asolar shading solution on a certain façade, and how would these look aesthetically? Along term aim in the project is to stimulate the development of facades as a resourcethat opens for new opportunities for solar solutions.Through interviewing potential target groups like property owners and other keyactors about their needs and requests regarding a digital tool, mapping out technicalpossibilities as well as legal and organizational aspects, we have investigated theprerequisites for such a tool. We have identified property owners as our primary targetgroup, and in particular medium-sized property owners with commercial buildings,although there seems to be an increasing interest in solar solutions also in tenantowners’ associations and apartment buildings. In total, at least 30 people fromproperty companies, trade organizations, solar energy companies, governmentalagencies, and urban planning offices have participated in our interviews andworkshops respectively and contributed their thoughts and needs about how a digitalvisualization tool could create value in the procurement of solar solutions for facades.The results from the study suggest that a digital visualization tool could create valuefor property owners if it triggers the interest for solar solutions early in a renovation-/rebuilding process; is easy to use for people regardless of role at the propertycompany or tenant owners’ association; can provide an idea of how a certain solarsolution would look along with an estimation of economic and environmental benefits(rather than exact calculations); can support the communication about solar solutionsbetween property owners and tenants; can be used “in the field” at a certain buildingas well as in the office; is owned by a neutral actor and is free of charge for propertyowners to use.Together with insights from the technical state-of-the art mapping and legal issues, wehave gathered these user-oriented insights in a list of requirements for a future tool. Toconclude the project, we conducted a workshop with invited actors from thevisualization and solar shading industry to secure the relevance of the technicalrequirement list and identify further important questions for a future developmentphase. Future challenges include identifying a neutral owner for the tool, identify areasonable payment model, as well as implementing the tool step-wise while waitingfor necessary technical advances in the area of augmented reality and 3D datarespectively.

  • Joborn, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Ranjbar, Zohreh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Utveckling av spridningsmått för störningar och deras påverkan på punktlighet - UTSPRIDD 2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]


    Punktlighet är Trafikverkets viktigaste mätetal på kvalitét i tågföring. Tåg med en slutförsening på 6 minuter eller mer räknas som "opunktliga" medan tåg med mindre avvikelse räknas som de är "punktliga". Branschens målsättning är att uppnå 95% punktlighet, det har dock visat sig svårt att höja punktligheten trots branschgemensamma initiativ. Tillsammans för tåg i tid (TTT) är ett branschgemensamt initiativ i syfte att höja punktligheten i järnvägssystemet.

    Trafikverkets huvudsakliga mått på en störning är den totala merförseningstid eller störningstid som störningen har genererat. Störningar som ger merförsening som är 3 minuter eller mer registreras och kopplas till den händelse som anses vara grundorsak till störningen/merförseningen, medan merförseningar som är mindre än 3 minuter inte registreras och orsakskopplas.

    Syftet med detta projekt är att hitta tydligare samband mellan händelser och punktlighetsbrist. Genom att ta hänsyn till återhämtning (och inte bara merförsening) kan man skapa en koppling mellan orsakande händelser och förseningen på slutstationen så att man på ett bättre sätt kan identifiera vilka störningar som ger upphov till punktlighetsproblem. De samband som har utvecklats bygger på några nya mätetal:

    -       Förseningsbidrag – hur mycket varje händelse bidrar till tågets slutförsening

    -       Kritiska händelser – om en händelse eller en störning direkt orsakar opunktlighet

    -       Störningsspridning – hur mycket en störning sprider sig från själva händelseplatsen

    Målet med denna studie är att avgöra på vilket sätt de föreslagna, kompletterande måtten för störningar och störningars spridning är användbara i praktiken och vilken kompletterande kunskap de kan ge jämfört med de redan etablerade måtten. En fallstudie har genomförts med data från snabbtåg på södra och västra stambanorna.

    En automatiserad datorbaserad algoritm har tagits fram för beräkning av de nya mätetalen som fungerar generellt utan manuella ingrepp, vilket är ett villkor för mer storskalig användning. Projektet har också visat hur ett modernt databearbetningsverktyg (PowerBI) kan användas för dynamiska analyser och visualisering.

    De nya mätetalen visar i studien stor potential att komplettera de befintliga mätetalen för att kunna både öka förståelsen kring punktlighetsproblematiken och för att göra skarpare åtgärder för att höja den. De viktigaste resultaten från denna studie:

    -       Förseningsbidrag och kritiska händelser ger kompletterande kunskap om opunktligheten.

    -       Små händelser orsak till stor del av opunktligheten.

    -       Småförseningar (dvs icke-registrerade störningar på 1-2 minuter vardera) är viktiga för opunktligheten.

    -       Många störningar återhämtas, det är därför viktigt att veta vilka som har påverkan på punktligheten och vilka som inte har påverkan

    -       Störningar som sker i slutet av resan är oftare kritiska än andra störningar.

    -       Baserat på förseningsbidrag och kritiska händelser kan ett effektsamband mellan störningstid och punktlighet skapas.

    -       Effektsambandet visar att beaktande av kritiska händelser kan göra punktlighetsåtgärder effektivare än om åtgärdsprioritering baseras på störningstid

    -       Visualiseringar av störningars spridning genom av basera visualisering på förseningsbidrag ger en god bild hur störningar lever i järnvägsnätetet.

    -       Moderna databehandlings- och datavisualiseringsverktyg kan underlätta för dynamisk bearbetning och djupdykning i data.

    Ett sidoresultat av studien är att det är av stor vikt att göra detaljerade djupanalyser som komplement till aggregerade analyser, då flera av slutsatserna i denna rapport hade varit mycket svårare att göra om man arbetat för brett. Genom att fokusera data, i vårt fall norrgående snabbtåg på södra stambanan, erhölls mycket tydligare resultat än om en spretigare datamängd skulle ha använts.

    Projektet är en fortsättning på förstudien SPRIDA

    Eftersom det finns stor potential i de nya begreppen, mätetalen och angreppssätten föreslås att Trafikverket snarast fortsätter utvecklingen av de framtagna koncepten.


  • Sandin, Ylva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Stadsutveckling och påbyggnader: Utvecklingsbehov inför etapp 2 av Timber on top2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The "Timber on top" project will produce a Best Practice Guide on how to work with vertical extensions (of buildings) in a socially, economically and ecologically sustainable way.

    "Timber on Top - Stage 1", funded by Vinnova under contract 2018-02753, was led by Arbio – Sveriges träbyggnadskansli and was carried out during the period 2018-12-01 - 2019-08-31. The aim of stage 1 was to create a framework for stage 2 by mapping opportunities and obstacles for vertical extensions, linked to the three sustainability perspectives; social, economic and ecological sustainability. In the project, Arbio, LIU, LTU, RISE, Trästad Sweden, five municipalities and about 30 companies participated. In stage 2, the work will focus on developing, testing and analyzing process support, business models and technical solutions. The results will be disseminated through workshops and seminars and will be documented in a Best Practice Guide. Stage 2 of "Timber on Top" was granted by Vinnova in July 2019 and will run from autumn 2019 to autumn 2021.

    This report presents parts of the work done in stage 1. The aim was to identify development needs to be addressed in stage 2 concerning social sustainability and urban development. The subject is broad, and a delimitation needs to be done in order for a best practice to be identified. In this pre-study, project participants' views and wishes were gathered by interviews, to be taken as a starting point for a relevant delimitation of the scope. Some examples of findings in this study are:

    There is a need for better understanding of municipal planning processes. For example, how cultural values can be taken care of in extension projects and whether and how planning processes can be more effective.

    • It would be interesting to explore extension projects as a means of social innovation. Can vertical extensions be used to increase the social sustainability of residential areas with social challenges?

    • The project participants wish to be informed of existing vertical extensions that represent good and bad examples. They also want to meet physically in the project and to get in touch with builders and architects who have experiencein vertical extensions.

    Vinnova and the participating companies are hereby warmly thanked for funding and for the opportunity to complete the project's first phase. A special thank you also to project participants in Umeå, Varberg, Växjö, Sunne and Malmö for your time and commitment in this study.

  • Edo Giménez, Mar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jensen, Carl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rapp, Magnus
    Ragn-Sells Recycling AB, Sweden.
    Radlert, Åke
    Swerock AB, Sweden.
    Sahlin, Jenny
    PROFU, Sweden.
    Weiss, Monika
    SRV återvinning AB, Sweden.
    Manual för plockanalyser av brännbart bygg- och rivningsavfall2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This manual provides instructions on how to perform sorting analyses of combustible construction and demolition waste studied in the project Framtidens avfallsbränsle – Uppströmsarbete och kvalitet.The sorting strategy described in this manual recommends sorting out the content of the waste sample based on its composition (referred to as main fractions) and functionality (referred to as subfractions). In this way, four material fractions are identified and sorted out (i.e. plastic, paper, wood and “others combustible and non-combustible materials”), and up to 48 different subfraction (i.e. plastic pipes, wooden furniture, packaging paper, cables, metal pieces etc.).It is important to mention that the subfractions listed in this report are indicative: not all of the subfractions listed are always found in the combustible construction and demolition waste. Additions or substitutions may be necessary to ensure the best outcomes from the sorting analyses depending on the aim and goals of the project.The way the waste sample is handled before a sorting analysis is performed is essential. For that reason, this manual also includes instructions about sample collection, identification and storage once the sample is received at the sorting waste plants; as well as brief recommendations about how to perform a pre-sorting of those materials with a potential for recycling and waste which can be easily removed.

  • Ernits, Heiti
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    PROJEKTSTUDIO : En miljö och ett arbetssätt förgränsöverskridande problemlösning,lärande och samarbete2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektstudion är ett arbetssätt som underlättar för professionen att tackla problem och genomföra projekt som kräver samverkan över förvaltningsmässiga, organisatoriska eller kunskapsmässiga gränser. Projektstudion som arbetssätt nyttjas när frågor eller problem är komplexa, tvetydiga eller gränsöverskridande; eller där det krävs involvering av intressenter eller fler kunskapsperspektiv. Projektstudion kan användas för att hantera händelser och situationer där det av någon anledning saknas organisatoriska rutiner, förhållningssätt, procedurer eller kompetens för att hantera. Projektstudion kan användas för att skapa en robust samsyn i organisationen kring en viss fråga, hitta kompromisser, lösa uppgifter på ett snabbare sätt, öka det organisatoriska lärandet eller för att skapa ett bättre beslutsunderlag genom att inkludera en bredare kunskapsbas.

  • Landquist, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Liten behovsanalys foderdatabas samt dokumentation från dialog mellan aktörer2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fodrets andel av klimatavtrycket för animalieprodukter (kött, mjölk, ägg och odlad fisk) är betydande, mellan 20 till nästan 100 procent beroende på produkt. De diskussioner och möten som genomförts under året har visat att det finns en efterfrågan på uppdaterade klimatavtryck för foderråvaror och foderblandningar.

    Foderföretagen har behov av klimatdata på foderråvaror för att ha möjlighet att kommunicera klimatavtryck till senare delen av kedjan och även för att optimera foder-recepten ur klimatsynpunkt. Företag i animaliebranschen (kött, mjölk, ägg och odlad fisk) har behov av klimatavtryck då de önskar beräkna och förbättra klimatavtrycket för sina produkter. Rådgivningen som riktas till djurproducenter har behov av klimatavtryck för både foderråvaror och foderblandningar.

    Det finns tillgång till klimatavtryck och även andra miljöavtryck för en del svenska och importerade foderråvaror dels på en webbsida som heter www.lcadatafoder.se och dels i en rapport publicerad av SIK (nuvarande RISE) 2008. Webbplatsen ägs och förvaltas av RISE och är i behov av uppdatering och komplettering, dock saknas finansiering för detta arbete. Ska uppdatering och utveckling av sidan ske, måste det till projektfinansiering för RISE. Det finns även möjlighet att hämta klimatavtryck via olika internationella databaser och websidor.

    Det finns inget självklart sätt att finansiera ett arbete med en uppdaterad och utvecklad svensk foderdatabas med miljöavtryck. Det krävs en bred finansiering från hela livs-medelskedjan, men både foderbranschen och livsmedelsindustrin uppger att de har så låga marginaler att det inte finns några marginaler att ta av. Man ser det istället som en fråga av samhällsintresse och att största delen borde finansieras med offentliga medel.

    Frågor som har diskuterats och som behöver utredas ytterligare är bland annat följande:

    • • Definition av vad databasen skall innehålla avseende omfång, innehåll, använd-ning, metoder, tillgänglighet (öppen eller sluten databas), uppdatering och koppling till internationella initiativ.
    • • Lämplig teknisk miljö där databasen ska befinna sig inklusive drift.
    • • Lämplig huvudman för databasen. Foderföretagen anser att huvudmannen ska vara neutral och inte representera en part i kedjan. Detsamma gäller den organi-sation som ska ta fram data.
    • • För närvarande är det primärt klimatavtrycket som efterfrågas, men andra miljöaspekter som toxicitet och biologisk mångfald är av stort intresse.
    • • Samarbetsformer för att driva denna process vidare.

    Om samarbete kring en miljödatabas för foderprodukter och uppdaterade klimatavtryck för råvaror kommer igång ökar sannolikheten att fler foderföretag börjar räkna på klimatavtryck för sina produkter.

  • Fahnestock, Jesse
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Talalasova, Elena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Göteborgs stads Innovationsprogram : scenarioanalys 20352019Report (Other academic)
  • Sjöstrand, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lindhe, Andreas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Anthesis Enveco AB, Sweden.
    Dahlqvist, Peter
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, Sweden.
    Rosen, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    När vattentillgången brister2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water demand management – challenges and possibilitiesAccess to good quality water in sufficient quantity is essential for people’s everyday life and for most businesses and economic sectors. However, water scarcity and drought are emerging as some of the most important global risks to society with both short-term and long-term effects on people, ecosystem services, biodiversity and the economic activities that depend on a reliable water supply. This is a global problem, and Sweden is not spared. The low precipitation and high summer temperatures that hit Sweden for three consecutive years between 2016 and 2018, caused a vastly reduced access to water and led to major consequences for the Swedish society.In most Swedish regions, however, there is usually more than enough water to meet the growing needs of society and at the same time maintain a good environmental status even during drought. But to ensure a long-term sustainable water supply, all parties, i.e. households, water-dependent businesses and authorities, need to take measures. Drought and water scarcity are challenges that do not only affect, or can be solved by, the municipal drinking water supply. Each and everyone who uses and is dependent on water, regardless of whether the water is supplied through public or private systems, is part of the problem and should therefore also be part of the solutions.This report provides information and material to help companies contribute to a better water situation in areas with low water availability. The report describes the water usage and water availability in Sweden today and how they are expected to change in the future. Incentives and driving forces for water savings are described as well as methods for identifying inefficient water usage and improvement measures. A review of studies from various countries provides information on challenges as well as good examples of water scarcity mitigation measures in various economic sectors. Examples of decision support methods that can be used to evaluate and prioritize between alternative measures are also described. Finally, potential implementation barriers are discussed and examples of policy instruments which can facilitate implementation of beneficial measures are given.

  • van Kasteren, Anouk
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. University of Technology Eindhoven.
    The Contribution of Eye Tracking to Quality of Experience Assessment of 360-degree video2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research domain on the Quality of Experience (QoE) of 2D video streaming has been well established. However, a new video format is emerging and gaining popularity and availability: VR 360-degree video. The processing and transmission of 360-degree videos brings along new challenges such as large bandwidth requirements and the occurrence of different distortions. The viewing experience is also substantially different from 2D video, it offers more interactive freedom on the viewing angle but can also be more demanding and cause cybersickness. Further research on the QoE of 360-videos specifically is thus required.The first goal of this thesis is to complement earlier research by (Tran, Ngoc, Pham, Jung, and Thank, 2017) testing the effects of quality degradation, freezing, and content on the QoE of 360-videos. The second goal is to test the contribution of visual attention as influence factor in the QoE assessment. Data will be gathered through subjective tests where participants watch degraded versions of 360-videos through an HMD with integrated eye-tracking sensors. After each video they will answer questions regarding their quality perception, experience, perceptual load, and cybersickness.Results of the first part show overall rather low QoE ratings and it decreases even more as quality is degraded and freezing events are added. Cyber sickness was found not to be an issue. The effects of the manipulation on visual attention were minimal. Attention was mainly directed by content, but also by surprising elements. The addition of eye-tracking metrics did not further explain individual differences in subjective ratings. Nevertheless it was found that looking at moving objects increased the negative effect of freezing events and made participants less sensitive for quality distortions. The results of this thesis alone are not enough to successfully regard visual attention as an influence factor in 360-video.

  • Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Shayesteh, Haghighatpanah
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Bergstrand, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire safe furniture in a sustainable perspective2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Loose furnishings, such as upholstered furniture, mattresses and textiles, are very important for the early stages of fires. Such products can be easily ignited, contribute to rapid spread of fire and produce a lot of smoke and heat when they burn. This limits the time and opportunity for evacuation and fire rescue. The regulation of fire properties of interior textiles, armchairs, sofas and mattresses has been discussed nationally and internationally for many years, without resulting in more stringent requirements for such products, at least not on a harmonized level. Fire safety and environmental considerations are important factors that are often set against each other. It is therefore important to promote the development of safe and fireproof furnishings that are environmentally friendly throughout their life cycle, and which satisfy other requirements that are usually imposed on this product group. The main objective of this project has been to contribute to new knowledge about how fire safety associated with loose interior design can be improved through developing products that meet sustainability and circularity requirements. These new products shall have fire performance comparable to flame retarded reference products but will rely on construction techniques and materials containing small amounts or no flame retardants. The new products shall be safe while in use and shall be recyclable at the end of life. Sustainability and environmental impact analyses including life cycle analyses of furnishing materials have been performed, as well as fire tests for screening the fire performance of a selection of material combinations. Combining a requirement for both sustainable yet fire safe furnishing is a complex task to solve. The more complex the material combination, the more difficult to predict both factors in parallel. Slight variations in components can potentially change the overall scoring of their performance. Cotton, wool and polyester has been shown to have equally high sustainability scores, although cotton had relatively high environmental impact. Polyamide was identified as the fabric with the best environmental performer but scoring lower on sustainability. The cushion material has great impact on fire safety because it may contribute with large amounts of heat energy and smoke. Polyurethane is by far the most common cushion material and comes in many variations, some including chemical fire retardants (FR). FR’s have not been included in in the sustainability and environmental impact analyses in this study, instead focus has been on exploring alternative methods of achieving comparable fire performance. In the case of cushion material, latex was identified as performing much higher on both sustainability and environmental impact than polyurethane. Unfortunately, latex was not a part of the fire testing series and was therefore not explored with regard to fire performance. Future studies should explore the interaction of the fire performance properties of different materials identified as high sustainability and environmental impact performers, especially in full scale room fire experiments. Thorough knowledge about how different components (of high sustainability and low environmental impact) contribute to the fire performance and how these are maintained throughout the furniture’s lifetime, would improve the possibility of fire safe furniture to be part of a circular economy.

  • Niklasson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ryde, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    On-line monitoring of agglomeration in fluidised bed boilers2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion in fluidized beds has several benefits, but a potential problem is bed agglomeration causing defluidisation. The most used counter measure is to regularly renew the bed material, inferring costs for new sand and deposition of spent material. For an adaptive optimization there is a need of a method which indicates when bed agglomeration is initializing, before it is too late to counteract.

    In this project, the conductivity of fluidized beds has been measured by a novel in-situ probe. The probe has been tested in a fluidized bed of sand and ashes at temperatures up to 1000°C. In addition, the probe has been tested in a fluidized bed while burning different fuels.

    The results show that the conductivity of the bed increases with temperature and concentration of ash. The conductivity varies strongly between different fuels. The signal from the probe reacts strongly to the onset of severe bed agglomeration, but it is hard to find any consistent tendencies that can be applied to predict it.

  • Gustafsson, Linnea
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ultraljud - mätning av köttkvalitet på levande nötkreatur2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Meatquality, i.e. sensory quality, includes traits such as tenderness and texture,flavour and juiciness. Tenderness and flavour are considered to be the mostimportant meat quality traits and are related to the amount of marbling of themeat, i.e. the amount of intramuscular fat. The marbling of the meat isaffected by e.g. sex, age, breed, genetic disposition and feeding regime.Marbling is moderately heritable in cattle, which mean that genetic progresscan be achieved by selecting for marbling within a breed. In Sweden, a standardfor beef marbling scoring has been developed, which is optional for theslaughterhouses to use. However, few slaughterhouses have implemented themarbling scoring system in their payment model to farmers, which means thatthere are no apparent financial incentives for meat producers to produceanimals of high eating quality. The possibility to predict the marbling score in live animals mayincrease the interest for eating quality traits of beef in Sweden and improve productionplanning, the prediction of time for slaughter and breeding. Ultrasound isalready an established method for estimating beef carcass characteristics andis used e.g. in the USA and Canada.

    The study aimed to evaluate ultrasound as amethod to measure carcass meat quality traits on live cattle in Sweden. Data of94 cattle was included in the study. The animals were scanned with ultrasoundbefore slaughter and ultrasound and carcass measurements of marbling, backfatthickness and muscle depth were then compared. The results showed a relativelylow correlation between marbling score by ultrasound and marbling assessedvisually on the carcass, but it was within the range of results from previousstudies. However, the distribution of data was limited with few animals withhigh marbling scores, which means that a correlation analysis may not bereliable. Therefore, the marbling score was also analysed as a categoricalvariable with Fisher’s exact test, and the results showed a significantrelationship between marbling grade before and after slaughter. The ultrasound measurements made a correct classifying in around half of the cases. The results also showed a lower correlation for measurement of backfat compared toprevious studies (r= 0,51 at the 12/13th rib and r=0,43 at the 10/11thrib), while the results for measurement of muscle depth was moderatelycorrelated to the carcass measurement.  Theresults can most likely be improved by better knowledge and understanding ofthe ultrasound technique and handling skills of both ultrasound hardware andsoftware. Furthermore, the results for marbling can probably be improved by arecalibration of the software to meet Swedish conditions, as the ultrasound measurementsgenerally seems to underestimate the marbling score. There is potential to useultrasound to measure marbling and meat quality traits on Swedish cattle, butthere is a need of more data material and better knowledge and experience toshow more reliable results.

  • Tamm, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Andersson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nytt innovativt koncept för småskalig produktion och distribution av flytande biogas2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The biogas market is facing changes, with gas driven vehicles gradually shifting to electrical drivelines, while new markets are emerging in the areas of industry, heavy road transports and shipping. Those new markets may require huge amounts of biomethane in both compressed and liquid form in the future. Liquid biomethane, even called LBM, bio-LNG or LBG (Liquefied BioGas), can directly replace today's LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) applications.

    Today's facilities for the production of LBG use large-scale conventional technology for the liquefaction, with a capacity of over 10 tpd and high capital costs. A significant part of the high costs is due to the requirement of an extra polishing step after biogas upgrading to remove residual carbon dioxide prior to liquefaction. A new technique using an absorption bed of wood ashes seems to be promising for the polishing of smaller volumes and thus enabling small-scale LBG production (Isaksson, et al., 2018). The technology is called ash filter and is developed at RISE in collaboration with SLU. In a previous study (Isaksson, et al., 2018), small systems with 1−2 GWh/a where ash filters are used for upgrading and polishing, as well as large systems of 30 GWh/a where ash filters are used for polishing only have been evaluated.

    The present study focuses on producing LBG from a partial flow of upgraded biogas on larger Swedish biogas plants, where the starting point is that the plant's full capacity cannot be utilized for the production of compressed gas alone. It is thus assumed that there is unused capacity for the production of upgraded biogas that can be further processed to LBG. Processing is done using an ash filter and subsequent drying of the gas, and then liquefying the gas in StirLNG-4 machines. Systems with a liquefaction capacity of 5, 15 and 25 GWh/a, respectively, have been reviewed. The production cost for polishing and liquefaction is just over 4 SEK/kg for the 5 GWh/a system, and about 3 SEK/kg for the larger systems.

    The analyzed system also included the LBG distribution. Based on the previous study (Isaksson, et al., 2018), a distribution system has been chosen based on insulated ISO containers permanently mounted on semi-trailers. The calculations show that this system has lower total costs than today's systems with stationary LNG storage and road tankers. In the studied system, ISO containers of different sizes are used for both local storage and transport to customers. Transport distances between 50 and 250 km have been assessed. At short distances, a large part of the distribution costs is due to the customer’s local LBG storage. At larger distances, the actual transport costs become dominant, and it gets increasingly interesting to use large containers.

    In total, the cost of production (polishing and liquefaction) and distribution is between 3.5 and 5.5 SEK/kg, depending on the production capacity, distance and container size, which can be compared to the current price of vehicle gas of about 16 SEK/kg (CircleK, 2019). The total cost of raw gas production, upgrading and refueling is about 12.5 SEK/kg (Vestman, Liljemark, & Svensson, 2014). The marginal cost of using unused capacity should therefore be lower than that. Depending on the actual marginal costs, this means that small-scale LBG production from a partial flow of upgraded biogas may be profitable.

  • Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hall, Stephen
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Engqvist, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Analysis of Fiber-matrix Interaction in FRC using X-ray Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation2019In: proc. of 10th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures (FraMCoS-X), Bayonne, France: International Association of Fracture Mechanics for Concrete and Concrete Structures , 2019, , p. 8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fiber pull-out is generally considered to be the dominating failure mechanism in fiber reinforced concrete (FRC). Accordingly, pull-out tests are typically performed to characterize the fiber-matrix interaction. However, little direct insight can be gained on the actual mechanisms ofthe pull-out from such a test. Deeper understanding could however be gained through the addition of non-destructive techniques to pull-out tests to enable the visualization and quantification of the mechanical interaction. Pull-out mechanisms for different common steel fibers were investigated using adapted pull-out tests performed in-situ in an X-ray micro tomography (µXRT). High resolution volume images from the µXRT scans enable clear visualization of aggregates, pores, fiber and fiber-matrix interface. Furthermore, the natural density speckle pattern from aggregate distribution and pores was found to be suitable for Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) analysis. From the DVC results it was possible to visualize and quantify the strain distribution in the matrix around the fiber at different load levels up to final failure, being marked by either pull-out or fiber rupture. The load transfer mechanism was initially dominated by shear along the fiber. As the load increased, slip occurred in the end-hook region and mechanical locking became the governing mechanism. This study demonstrates that strain measurements within the concrete matrix and passive end-slip can be obtained successfully using µXRT imaging and DVC analysis, which leads to an increased understanding of the interaction mechanisms in fiber reinforced concrete under mechanical loading.

  • Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Flansbjer, MathiasRISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Assessment of Fire Exposed Concrete with Full-field Strain Determination and Predictive Modelling2019Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A condition assessment of civil engineering structures is typically performed after the occurrence of a fire incident to determine the remedial actions required out of a structural point of view. A condition assessment is based on the mapping of damage on the given structure, which is traditionally executed via methods that yield indirect results related to surface and/or geometric properties. To be able to predict the accurate fire resistance performance of a given structure, it is most suitable to apply a mapping method which can be directly coupled to the change in material properties of concrete at high temperatures. The aim of this study is to explore the potential of applying an innovative damage mapping methodology directly coupled to the change in material properties of concrete at high temperatures. This methodology consists of optical full-field strain measurements based on Digital Image Correlation (DIC) coupled with a predictive model based on finite-element analysis (FEA). An experimental study was firstly conducted to expose concrete slabs to a standard fire curve. Subsequently, compression tests were performed on drilled cores taken from the damaged induced specimens, all while optically measuring the full-field strain on a specimen surface. As a preliminary step, an FE model of a fire exposed core was developed based on input data from standard temperature-dependent properties. The analysis consisted of a sequentially coupled thermal stress analysis to solve the multiphysics problem. The model was able to capture the temperature distribution in the concrete with enough certainty given the choice of input data. The resulting strain along the height of the core was also comparable to the experimental optical strain measurements, particularly as the distance increased from the fire exposed surface. These results can be practical when assessing the required strengthening actions to restore the load carrying capacity and durability of the concrete structure.

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