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  • Jahnke, Marcus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lööf, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Konst händer Hammarbadet: När konsten tar plats.2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I området Hammarkullen i Göteborg domineras de offentliga miljöerna av män. Ett undantag har varitdet lokala badhuset Hammarbadet där kvinnor har kunnat mötas på sina villkor. 2014 beslutadeIdrotts- och föreningsnämnden att Hammarbadet skulle stängas. Badhuset, miljonprogramsområdetsikonbyggnad från 1973, hade stora renoveringsbehov och den nyöppnade anläggningen AngeredArena i samma stadsdel, med bad, gym och idrottshallar, var tänkt att ersätta det lilla badet. Menstarka protester från boende räddade Hammarbadet. I samband med detta inleddeStadsdelsförvaltningen Angered (SDF Angered) och RISE Stadsutveckling senhösten 2015 ettundersökande arbete som en del av samrådsprocessen tillsammans med en grupp kvinnor, somunder många år nyttjat badhuset själva och med sina familjer, för att se hur badet skulle kunnaförstärkas som en mötesplats för kvinnor, och mellan kulturer.

  • Lööf, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Innovation platsforms: why, how and by whom?2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex challenges of today - ranging from social divisions to global warming - are difficult to handle by existing organisations, formed from a logic more suited for tasks and problems that can be clearly defined and divided. In recent years, innovation has often been emphasised as the key to managing complex societal challenges. Various forms of innovation efforts have become increasingly common. For example, investments in development and testing of new technical solutions in areas such as ICT, mobility and sustainable construction, but also solutions with social focus developed for and by the user such as more equal public space and services for sustainable lifestyles. It has become more common to work with concepts such as test beds and ‘living labs’, using design thinking and an experimental methodology in order to develop new solutions and innovation.

    The aim of this brochure is to offer an introduction to the concept of Innovation Platforms. What is an Innovation Platform, how it can be set up and function, and what a city or municipality might gain from working this way? This brochure is based on experiences from several national projects, such as the Swedish six year-long project Innovation Platforms for Sustainable, Attractive Cities (VINNOVA, 2013- 2019), with research overview from the RUGGEDISED-project and giving examples from both The Hague and Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Borås, Kiruna and Lund in Sweden.

  • Linden, Hanna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Diedrich, Andreas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Baumann, Henrikke
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Life cycle work: A process study of the emergence and performance of life cycle practice2020In: Organization & environment, ISSN 1086-0266, E-ISSN 1552-7417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle management (LCM) is a concept that goes beyond traditional corporate environmental management, due to its’ focus on a product’s entire life cycle. The spread of such concepts is usually understood in terms of processes of ‘diffusion’, whereby ideas spread over time by some inexplicable force. However, diffusion has proven less adequate to describe how ideas spreads in practice. Here, we address this oversight by studying the emergence and performance of what we refer to as life cycle practices. Drawing on an analysis of the development of a sustainability portfolio within a globally-operating manufacturing company, we illustrate the kinds of life cycle work involved in dealing with local activities and interests, connecting activities and interests into action-nets, performing life cycle practices, and spreading the life cycle idea. Finally, we discuss implications of life cycle work for research in the field of organization and management studies and for LCM research.

  • Tekie, Haben
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Andersson, Lisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Crossler Ernström, Tova
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Utvärdering av fritidsbanker2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport presenterar en utvärdering över vilka samhällsnyttor som fritidsbanker bidrar med samt de framgångsfaktorer och utmaningar som upplevs påverka hur väl en fritidsbank fungerar. Fritidsbanker kan vara organiseradepå olika sätt, men gemensamt är att invånare kan komma dit och låna sportutrustning och andra fritidsartiklar gratis – en form av delningsekonomi med potential att stimulera till en cirkulär ekonomi. Cirkulär ekonomi och delning har fått mer uppmärksamhet de senaste åren, men det saknas fortfarande forskning och utvärderingar inom området – och av fritidsbanker specifikt.

    Studien utgör en främjande utvärdering, vilket innebär att den har som ambition att både granska och hjälpa verksamheterna som studeras. Syftet med studien är att utvärdera vilka samhällsnyttor fritidsbanker bidrar med och identifiera utmaningar och framgångsfaktorer för fritidsbankerna. Målen är att belysa och sprida kännedom om effekterna av fritidsbankernas verksamhet. Metoderna som används för materialinsamling och analys är bådekvalitativa och kvantitativa; och inkluderar bland annat enkäter, intervjuer, effektanalys och miljöberäkning. Utvärderingen visar att fritidsbankerna har flera positiva sociala effekter, däribland ökad rörelse och ökad socialinkludering. De bidrar med ekonomiska effekter som ökad sysselsättning och potentiellt minskade sjukvårdskostnader. Resultaten visar även miljömässiga effekter bland annat genom förlängd livslängd för sportutrustning och potentiellt minskade nyköp av sportutrustning. Några av framgångsfaktorerna som lyfts för fritidsbankerna är låneverksamheten, fastanställd personal och samarbeten med lokala aktörer. Utmaningar i nuläget inkluderar osäker finansiering och svårigheter att hitta bra lokaler till överkomligt pris.

    Slutsatsen är att fritidsbankerna kan bidra med flera nyttiga samhällseffekter. Den centrala organisationen Fritidsbanken Sverige, tillsammans med de lokala fritidsbankerna, har potential att vara en viktig aktör i samhället och bidra till förbättrad hälsa, minskad klimatpåverkan och minskad ojämlikhet mellan olika sociala klasser. Samtidigt beror deras inverkan på hur respektive fritidsbank är utformad, vilka lokala och nationella samarbeten som finns och de praktiska förutsättningarna för verksamheterna (t.ex. ifråga om finansiering). Fritidsbankerna står inför flera utmaningar för att kunna driva och planera verksamheten långsiktigt och det är av stor vikt att de får ett stadigt stöd av kommuner och andra nyckelaktörer.

  • von Bahr, Bo
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Tekniska processer för fosforåtervinning ur avloppsslam2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is written within the framework of the state's public inquiries M 2018:08, committee directive 2018:67 "Non-toxic and circular recycling of phosphorus from sewage sludge". One of the tasks in the directive is a task about mapping the technological development for phosphorus recovery, which this report highlights.

    The methodology for answering the question has been to examine scientific articles published in recent years, and to review documentation from recent years' conferences, seminars and EU projects (completed and ongoing) in the field. Among the sources available on the internet, the German, Swiss and European phosphorus platforms have been the most important. A selection has been made of relevant processes, where the selection criteria are reported in the report. The starting point for recovering phosphorus is inside the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) where the sludge occurs. The reported processes have been subdivided on the basis of where in the process scheme they have their starting point, which is also the most common classification according to the literature.

    The result is that the choice of method must be a balance of what one wants to achieve because no method meets all the wishes. A vast majority of processes meet the criterion of depollution, ie the degree of detoxification is very high, which is an important driving force for introducing them. The recycling potential of the processes is very variable, from 20 % of incoming phosphorus to the WWTP (usually struvite processes etc.) to just over 95 % of incoming phosphorus (usually thermal processes, e.g. biokol and extraction from ash), since it involves the whole sludge stream. In order to achieve a high recovery rate when internal processes are applied, it is also required that the phosphorus in the remaining dewatered sludge is recycled.

    Only one category of processes is assessed to be fully developed, namely the struvite processes. All other processes are considered "new technology" or "promising innovations". Most of the internal processes in WWTP do not fit well in Sweden because most Swedish WWTPs use chemical precipitation of phosphorus instead of biologically.

    An important aspect from the system- and economic point of view is in what form the phosphorus comes out of the process, which is highly variable for the processes studied. The processes in which phosphorus comes out in a form known to the agriculture (or industry) are considered to have the greatest potential to be viable in the long term. It has been difficult to obtain costs for introducing the studied processes, this because the processes are under development. It is often pointed out that phosphorus recovery processes are very expensive, but compared to today's costs that WWTPs has to get rid of the sludge, it is unclear how large the cost difference actually becomes.

    The report also highlights the environmental impacts from a life-cycle perspective. The general conclusion is that it is difficult to obtain knowledge because most of the processes are under development, and that it is difficult to draw any clear results from the analyzes that have been fulfilled.

    Three different ways of taking care of the entire sludge flow have been identified; bio-coal, ash and ash extraction. The first means that the entire sludge amount is dried and pyrolyzed and the remainder is a bio char which should be regarded as a carbon-sink and a long-term phosphorus source. The second way is to burn ash and direct spread of this ash. The third way involves the extraction of phosphorus from this ash in different ways and here there are three methods of this type that are at approximately the same level of development. Two other methods that are regarded as promising innovations are about HTC processes (hydrothermal carbonization) and extraction using CO2. Assessed advantages and disadvantages for these and other categories of processes can be found in the report.

  • Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Steghöfer, Jan-Philipp
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagvall Svensson, Oskar
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Facilitating Entrepreneurial Experiences through a Software Engineering Project Course2019In: 2019 IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering Education andTraining (ICSE-SEET), IEEE , 2019, p. 28-37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skills and competencies in entrepreneurship, suchas the ability to generate innovative ideas and the courage toengage with stakeholders and society, have gained importance inengineering curricula. In this case study paper, we report on howwe have integrated entrepreneurial experiences into a softwareengineering project course and made the creation of value andreflection on the application of a structured process the heart andsoul of the course. Based on current research on entrepreneurshipeducation as well as the definition of entrepreneurial competenciesused by the European Union, we show how the learningobjectives, the teaching moments, the integration of externalstakeholders, and the assessment work together to create anentrepreneurial environment in which students are encouragedand rewarded to work in an entrepreneurial way. Based on datafrom reflection reports, course evaluations, and interviews wediscuss the pros and cons of our approach and how the studentperception and expectations often run counter to the motivationsof the course design. We thus contribute guidance for otherteachers based on our own experiences in relation to the findingsof our peers.

  • Granlund, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Narvesjö, Jimmy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Malou Petersson, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    The Influence of Module Tilt on Snow Shadowing of Frameless Bifacial Modules2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, frameless bifacial modules’ performance in a boreal climate is examined, with a focus on snow coverage and snow clearance for different module tilt angles. A group of ten bifacial modules at different tilt angles located in northern Sweden at latitude 65°N were studied during the first months of 2019. It was shown that modules mounted at 0 and 15° tilt was covered the most by snow and 80 and 90° the least. All other modules, mounted at 25-70° tilt, showed mostly similar results in snow coverage and removal. All modules were subjected to snow coverage from January to March. In January no considerable energy output was observed for any module. In February and March modules with tilt angles of 0 and 15° had a lower energy output than the other modules, for which no considerable differences were observed. In April, when no snow coverage occurred, the module mounted at 45° had the largest energy output and in May, 25-35° performed the best. For the entire period of January-May the modules at 35-45° output the most energy.

  • Røyne, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Cintas, Olivia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Assessment Roadmapfor Emerging Bio-based Technologies: Identifying Sustainability Prospects with Multiple Perspectives2019In: Life cycle Management Conference 2019: Life cycle Management Conference 2019, Poznan, Polen, 2019, Vol. 9Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many bio-based technologies are emerging technologies, with the characteristics of being radical and fast growing. The 2018 Nobel prize in chemistry is based on enzymatic bio-based conversion as a green alterative for several conventional technologies. Overall, the transition to a bio-based economy is seen as a mean to reach sustainability, energy independence and economic growth. Bioeconomy strategies have however also been criticized for focusing too much on economic growth and too little on sustainability. Assessing potential life cycle sustainability risks and benefits early in the development of technologies – when still at lab or pilot scale – provides valuable insights about how to prioritize research activities and to potentially avert unintended consequences. The lack of knowledge and high uncertainty in early development however also makes such assessments challenging. On the social sustainability side, bio-based technologies create new jobs, while the social acceptance can hinder the market growth even in an innovation country like Sweden. Emerging technologies like for example artificial intelligence might reduce jobs and gene therapy in medicine might bear risk for coming future generation. The questions and risks are manifold. Therefore, it is essential to have a roadmap for guidance that takes a holistic approach to sustainability with a life cycle perspective. To add to the complexity, the possibilities for assessment approaches are extensive. Different perspectives can be assessed in numerous ways and with many different methods. The goal of this study is to contribute to a sustainable transition to the bioeconomy, by serving as a roadmap for research and innovation (R&I) on emerging bio-based technologies.

    To suggest a general roadmap for holistic and interdisciplinary assessments, this study identifies, and describes the use of multiple perspective assessments in selected R&I projects on emerging bio-based technologies. The projects include virgin and waste raw materials, biotechnology conversion processes and products such as bio-based chemicals, building materials, soil amendment, and pellets for heat. The findings are, in combination with existing frameworks on biomass- and bio-product prospect models, used to suggest an assessment roadmap for identifying sustainability prospects of emerging bio-based technologies.

    The result consists of an “assessment roadmap” including the perspectives resource-, economic-, environmental-, social- and market potential. Each perspective is accompanied by questions targeted to identify benefits and risks, such as “What valorization routes currently exists, and are under research, for the feedstock?”; “Is the feedstock available, also in the future?”; “Is the production technology socially accepted?”. The roadmap for bio -based emerging technologies also provides advice on the procedure for sustainability assessments, such as organizing an initial workshop with expert knowledge and highlight the importance of scanning before allocating resources for in depth analyses.

  • Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Reitsma, Lizette
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Jennie, Schaeffer
    Region Västmanland Museum, Sweden.
    Ryöppy, Merja
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Ho, Hayley
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nyström, Sofie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Carbon theatre in public spaces: Using participatory theatre and co-designmethods in a museum for shaping lowcarbon lifestyles2019In: Life Cycle Management Conference 2019, Poznan, Polen, 2019, Vol. 9, article id 97Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past ten years, the need for public spaces to deal with burning societal issues, such as climate change, has become even more important. Participatory theatre offers ways to meet the longing for shared forums by engaging large groups of people in exploring difficult social dilemmas. It can potentially empower participants to change their own situations and organizations. In a previous design research project Quantifying your carbon footprint, this gap was in focus. We will use the findings from the Quantifying carbon footprint project as an entry point and expand it with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) on objects from the current museum collection and on daily life activities that have a carbon impact. The goal of the project is to explore and understand the climate and environmental impacts of lifestyles. The method used here are participatory theatre and co-design methods and pop-up exhibitions are used to engage young citizens in negotiating social norms and understanding their possible impact on CO2 emissions. The museum collections play a crucial role in the process of understanding how LCA calculations are related to mundane objects and reflecting on the temporality of social norms that are negotiated and re-negotiated through the way we handle products and objects in our everyday life. Developing new practices for museums involving participatory methods in order to engage young citizens in climate research. The results of the introductory meeting and study visit show that using the museum’s collection, the history and the value of things in the past centuries become clear and easier to reflect on compared to today’s unsustainable lifestyle – travelling and over consumption. Carbon Dioxide Theatre is an attempt to shape a shared space on a local level, in line with the priorities of the museum’s three years plan.

  • Reitsma, Lizette
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Hayley, Ho
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Nyström, Sofie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Brikhan, Wasim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Schaeffer, Jennie
    Västmanlands läns museum, Sweden.
    Ryöppy, Merja
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Larsen, Henry
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Strøbech, Elena
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Our burden - Carbondioxide theatre for climate action2019In: NORDES 2019: WHO CARES?, Espoo, Finland, 2019, Vol. 8, article id 150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The biggest changes to the planet are made by humankind and action needs to be taken in order to guarantee a sustainable level of emissions for the planet (Rockström et al. 2009). In the project presented in this poster, we engage young citizens (from 15 to 20 years old), in critically reflecting on social norms and practices around climate goals and CO2 emissions, through participatory theatre methods. Only when those involved can get sufficient authority to determine and guide the research and the research agenda, can a project be truly participatory (Winschiers-Theophilus 2009). Participatory theatre offers ways to meet the longing for shared forums by engaging large groups of people in exploring difficult social dilemmas. It can potentially empower the young participants to change their own situations and organisations, as it is “likely to shake things into action or to “unfreeze” blocked situations ” (Shreyögg and Höpfl 2004).

  • Langton, Maud
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sween.
    Ehsanzamir, Sohail
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sween.
    Karkehabadi, Saeid
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sween.
    Feng, Xinmei
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Johansson, Monika
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sween.
    Johansson, Daniel P.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sween.
    Gelation of faba bean proteins - Effect of extraction method, pH and NaCl2020In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 103, article id 105622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of extraction method, pH and NaCl addition on rheological properties and microstructure of heat-induced faba bean protein gels was evaluated. Gels formed at pH 7 (no NaCl) of alkaline-extracted protein had the densest and finest network structure and highest stress and strain at fracture. The high density of nodes and small pores in the protein network could contribute to those mechanical properties. In contrast, storage modulus (G′) and Young's modulus were lowest for protein gels at pH 7. The gels formed at pH 5 had high G′ and Young's modulus, whereas stress and strain at fracture were lower, especially for gels formed from alkaline-extracted protein. Gels formed at pH 5 with 2% NaCl had two types of internal gel network, caused by a change in solubility of 7S globulins. When the protein powder was dissolved in water, particle size was dependent on the extraction method, with alkaline extraction giving much larger protein particles than soaked extraction.

  • Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sprei, Frances
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Integrating Entrepreneurial Experiences with Sustainable Development Education2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to address the challenge of teaching sustainable development to computer engineering students. Part of the problem is that they perceive the topic as irrelevant for their future profession. The chosen approach was to introduce a project element into a course on sustainable development where the students developed applications for sustainable mobility together with the local public transport authority, an academic institution and a multinational telecom company. Thus the course project was organized to facilitate entrepreneurial experiences, as defined in the EU's EntreComp model, as well as relating theoretical concepts to experiences in a concrete context. The students were then asked to analyze and reflect upon their design choices and approaches in relation to sustainable development and ethical considerations. The findings conclude that the course changes improved the overall student satisfaction while succeeding in anchoring sustainable development in a context the students could relate to. The collaboration was also perceived as fruitful by the external stakeholders who encouraged the students to stay in touch for their bachelor theses and internships. The theoretical implication is a first attempt in integrating sustainable development education with entrepreneurial experiences while the practical implication is a description of how the integration can be realized. The contribution is therefor of value for both educational researchers by opening novel research opportunities and teachers by describing new possibilities for sustainable development education.

  • Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ornäs, Victor Hiort af
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A Little Goes a Long Way - Opportunities for Multidisciplinary Education2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambitions about deep interdisciplinary education may face barriers. However, interaction between student groups does not have to be difficult. We report on a collaboration including more than 200 students from different subject areas, at different curricular stages in a multidisciplinary concept workshop. By engaging with an external event we avoided some of the challenges involved in aligning agendas, while remaining true to the ambitions of giving students Concrete Experience and opportunity to Reflect in and on actions, balancing the ambitions of raising awareness of the relation between subjects and engaging students in collaborating in problem solving based on skills and knowledge from their respective discipline. Our results show how collaborating with industry can help bridge some of the challenges with internal collaboration between students from different disciplines.

  • Burden, Håkan
    Hållbar Utveckling som Projekt i Mjukvaruutveckling2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Alégroth, Emil
    et al.
    Burden, Håkan
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Hammouda, Imed
    Knauss, Eric
    Steghöfer, Jan-Philipp
    Teaching Scrum - What We Did, What We Will Do and What Impedes Us2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Ohlin, Gunnar
    Lindholmen Science park, Sweden.
    Real-life Observations from Full Electric City Buses Utilising the Information Technology for Public Transport Specification2019Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Burden, Håkan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Transitioning from Teaching Canonical Engineering to Sustainable Development2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Talalasova, Elena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Urban Innovation Systems Analysis2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the urban innovation systems analysis is to provide strategy and governance recommendations to support upscaling of the solutions in each lighthouse city.

    First, enablers and barriers for upscaling are identified using the Critical Context and Conditions framework. Then, the Technological Innovation Systems framework is used to analyse the effects of these barriers and enablers on the main innovation functions of the urban innovation systems. The functioning of each function is assessed and the recommendations for improving them are given. As the final step, potential implications of the recommendations for the existing structural elements of innovation systems are presented.

    The report is structured as follows. First, the method for data collection and data analysis is described. Then, for each city, the barriers and enablers for the innovation system are outlined, followed by an analysis of how these barriers and enablers affect the functioning of the system. The recommendations for national, regional and local governance and strategy are introduced as the next step. The report concludes with a brief reflections and discussion of the results.

  • Edo, Mar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Profu, Sweden.
    Engman, Martin
    Skanska, Sweden.
    Jensen, Carl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Sahlin, Jenny
    Profu, Sweden.
    Solis, Martyna
    Profu, Sweden.
    Reduktion av mängden brännbart bygg- och rivningsavfall2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I övergången mot en cirkulär ekonomi är nyttiggörande av avfall och att använda detta som resurser en viktig hörnsten. Bygg- och rivningsavfall är en av de största avfallsströmmarna i Europa och uppskattas till omkring 800 miljoner ton per år inom EU (Europeiska kommissionen, 2019). I Sverige uppkommer omkring 10 miljoner ton bygg- och rivningsavfall varje år (Naturvårdsverket, 2018). Bygg- och rivningsavfall anses vara en avfallsström med stor potential till en förbättrad avfallshantering genom materialåtervinning jämfört med idag. Samtidigt har underlaget om vad det brännbara bygg- respektive rivningsavfallet innehåller varit väldigt knapphändigt.

    Projektets ambitioner har varit dels att öka kunskapen kring sammansättningen av brännbart bygg- respektive rivningsavfall och dels att med hjälp av diskussioner och intervjuer mellan/med olika led i värdekedjan ta fram rekommendationer till åtgärder för att säkerställa att det avfall som går till energiåtervinning bara består av sådant som inte kan återvinnas effektivare på annat sätt. Ett visst fokus har också varit kring plast som har en viktig inverkan på miljöavtrycket både för bygg- och rivningssektorn såväl som på energisektorn.

    I projektet gjordes plockanalyser på byggavfall och på rivningsavfall. Som ett resultat av detta arbete utvecklades en manual tillsammans med aktörerna som utförde plockanalyserna. Denna manual finns publicerad som en separat SBUF rapport för att underlätta användandet av den.

    Även om mängden plockanalyser var begränsat och inte kan sägas utgöra ett medel för respektive avfallstyp kunde fortfarande intressant observationer göras. Analyserna visade att det finns en hel del material i de brännbara fraktionerna som borde ha sorterats ut för materialåtervinning. I snitt utgjordes det brännbara byggavfallet till drygt 30 % av pappers och plastförpackningar. Detta är strömmar som omfattas av producentansvar och där det redan idag finns fungerande processer för materialåtervinning. Plast i sig stod för nästan 30% av det brännbara byggavfallet och av det utgjordes 50% av förpackningar. När det gällde rivningsavfallet fanns det exempel där mer än 50% av den så kallade brännbara fraktionen utgjordes av icke-brännbart material (främst gips).

    De förbättringsåtgärder som identifierats i projektet är en mix från komplexa åtgärder för normändring, ny affärslogik och kommunikation i värdekedjan till konkret om antal containrar vid sortering, förbättrade möten vid projektuppstart, och behov av ett utökat återtagande av förpackningar.

    Några av de största hindren för en ökad återvinning idag är:

    • Huvudsakligen kostnadsdrivna processer där avfall och resurshushållning får en underordnad betydelse

    • Otydlighet om miljönyttan – representanter för byggföretag påtalar att man saknar en tydlig information, kvantifiering och kommunikation om miljönyttan av att materialåtervinna istället för att energiåtervinna de brännbara avfallsfraktionerna.

    • Företagsledningarnas prioriteringar - de är avgörande för att bryta normer och ställa om till ett mer cirkulärt tänk

    • Tidsbrist vid inventeringar samt brist på utrymme för källsortering

    • Att sorteringsanläggningarna idag snarast är optimerade för bränsletillverkning än för att sortera ut så mycket återvinningsbart material som möjligt

     

    Projektet drar följande slutsatser, grupperade inom olika delar:

    Sammansättning:

    • Studien ger ett unikt, offentligt dataunderlag kring sammansättningen av brännbart bygg- och rivningsavfall, som tidigare saknats. Underlaget ger en indikation på framförallt vad som finns i byggavfallet och kan användas när avfallsstrategier uppdateras/tas fram.

    • Byggavfall och rivningsavfall måste separeras när man diskuterar åtgärder för såväl minimering som återvinning och återbruk eftersom förutsättningarna avsevärt skiljer sig åt mellan de två avfallsströmmarna.

    • Resultatet visar att brännbart rivningsavfall kan innehålla en betydande andel icke brännbart avfall, en andel som i vissa fall uppgått till så mycket som 50 procent varav gips utgjort den största andelen.

    • Den genomsnittliga koncentrationen av klor i både byggavfall och rivningsavfall är i samma storleksordning som den i RDF-avfall. Hårdplast är den fraktion som bidrar mest till klorinnehållet i båda avfallsströmmarna.

    • Byggavfall visade högre kvicksilverinnehåll jämfört med rivningsavfall och RDF och SRF. Det var inte möjligt att identifiera källan till kvicksilver i de analyserade proverna.

     

    Potential för materialåtervinning

    • Det brännbara byggavfallet skulle kunna minskas med upp till 33 procent enbart genom en väl fungerande källsortering och insamling av förpackningar (plast, papper och kartong).

    • Det finns en stor potential att öka återvinningen av plast från det brännbara byggavfallet - plockanalyserna visade att av plasten är det upp till 49 procent mjukplastförpackningar, som ingår i producentansvaret och har befintliga system för materialåtervinning

     

    Beteende, policies och prioriteringar

    • Den största utmaningen för minskade avfallsmängder och förbättrad avfallsbehandling är att företagsekonomisk rationalitet driver företagens dagliga verksamhet, och att avfall och avfallsbehandling ofta är en underordnad fråga.

    • Det pågår arbete för förbättrad resurshushållning och avfallshantering inom bygg- och rivningssektorerna för att utbilda och sprida kunskap, samt få branschaktörer att i praktiken agera efter befintlig kunskap.

    • Företagsledningens prioriteringar har stor potential att förändra normer och prioriteringar för inköpsprocesser för avfallsförebyggande, kvalitetssäkring för återanvändning och ökad källsortering. Dessa insatser upplevs medföra en större arbetsinsats, som innebär högre kostnader, än dagens norm med överbeställningar och avfallsgenerering.

    • Det finns ett stort behov av att sprida kunskapen om vikten av återvinning och avfalls-minskning längs hela värdekedjan.

    • Det finns ett stort behov av tidig och detaljerad planering av bygg- och rivningsprojekt, som inkluderar plan för avfallshantering genom hela projektet. I de nya avfallsriktlinjerna från Sveriges Byggindustrier rekommenderas att inventering ska göras även på återanvändbart och återvinningsbart material

    • Utökad sortering och återvinning av rivningsavfall hindras huvudsakligen av brist på tid för inventering och selektiv rivning, samt brist på utrymme för sortering.

    • Det finns ett behov av att förändra ordningen att dagens sorteringsanläggningar av blandat bygg- och rivningsavfall primärt syftar till att ta fram en bränslefraktion, snarare än att sortera avfallet för materialåtervinning

     

    Några rekommendationer från projektet till aktörer i byggsektorn:

    • Skapa strategi och samarbete för normförändring genom hela kedjan från tillverkare, byggherre och byggentreprenör som alla måste prioritera arbetet med att minimera och sortera avfall, för att nå en förändring. En väg kan vara att öka utbildning om resurshushållning som också prioriteras högt vid projektering, planering och implementering av byggprojekt.

    • Förtydliga och utöka samarbete mellan olika affärsenheter såsom ledning, hållbarhet, teknik, särskilt i stora organisationer. Hållbarhetsavdelningen är vanligen väl insatt i frågorna om avfallsförebyggande och hanteringen, men kan ha svårt att nå ut och nå förändring i praktiken.

    • Ökad kunskap om sammansättningen på avfallsströmmar genom systematiska plockanalyser och hantera avfallsströmmar från byggnation respektive rivning olika, med skilda behov av åtgärder för förbättring.

    • Sätt branschgemensamma mål och identifiera vägar för uppföljning för ökad resurshushållning och att nå bättre avfallsbehandling. Men ett gemensamt mål kan företag sporra varandra att prestanda mot samma mål.

    • Gör medvetna resursstyrda inköp.

    • Skapa ett forum för samverkan mellan aktörerna i värdekedjan från ägare av byggnader/infrastruktur hela vägen uppströms till producenterna av materialen/produkterna som används och nedströms till avfallsmottagarna.

  • Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Talalasova, Elena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    “Rich narratives”: Scenario analyses for the Lighthouse cities and recommendations2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Deliverable 6.2 “Rich narratives” – Scenario analyses forthe Lighthouse cities and recommendations summarizes the process and outcome of Task 6.3 “Contextual Scenario analysis”. The work was carried out during October 2017 – November 2018.

    The deliverable describes one “rich narrative” of a plausible and relevant future each for the lighthouse cities of Umeå, Glasgow, and Rotterdam for the year 2033, specifically by providing a maximum credible upscaling potential of the smart solutions, thereby fulfilling the expectations of the project stakeholders and the description in the Grant Agreement.

    The analysis was performed in close cooperation with each lighthouse city, using foresight and innovations system analysis, notably through (1) interviews with smart solution stakeholders, (2) the creation of the visualisation tool UPSCALE (Upscaling System) to determine the upscaling potential of the technical solutions and innovations, and (3) the execution of one workshop for each city, capturing unique conditions and providing each city with a future image, helping determine which options for action are most robust.

    The results in Deliverable 6.2 will influence Task 6.1 “Innovation Platforms” and serve as an input to Task 6.4 “Assessing the long-term scaling potential and energy system effects of the light house smart solutions”.

  • MacKay, Kimberly
    et al.
    University of Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Kusalik, Anthony
    University of Saskatchewan, Canada.
    GeneRHi-C: 3D GENomE Reconstruction from Hi-C data2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many computational methods have been developedthat leverage the results from biological experiments (such as Hi-C)to infer the 3D organization of the genome. Formally, this is referredto as the 3D genome reconstruction problem (3D-GRP). Hi-C datais now being generated at increasingly high resolutions. As thisresolution increases, it has become computationally infeasible topredict a 3D genome organization with the majority of existingmethods. None of the existing solution methods have utilized a nonproceduralprogramming approach (such as integer programming)despite the established advantages and successful applications ofsuch approaches for predicting high-resolution 3D structures ofother biomolecules. Our objective was to develop a new solution tothe 3D-GRP that utilizes non-procedural programming to realizethe same advantages.

  • Ruud, Svein
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Verifiering av beräkningsprogram för energieffektiva småhus2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the energy performance of 11 different single-family houses has been determined by calculation using two different energy calculation programs, through energy-declarations made by an independent energy expert and finally trough a stepwise normalization of measured values according to instructions in the regulation BEN published by the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket). Comparison has been made with current energy requirements and the energy requirements that applied when the buildings were constructed. Comparison has also been made with the energy calculations performed during the design phase. The 11 houses were selected in consultation with four different house manufacturers who have provided support in the form of drawings and calculation data. The houses have a geographical spread from the north to the south of Sweden and have different heating and ventilation systems. All houses have been visited and documented on site. All houses seem to meet the energy requirements that applied when they were built, but some have difficulty meeting the energy requirements that apply today. This mainly applies to the houses with district heating. On average, calculated values are lower than measured and normalized values, especially when compared to the energy declarations. However, it is assessed that the energy declarations made from a questionnaire and without having visited the houses have a lot of deficiencies, among other things, in most cases no real estate energy is reported, which in several cases affects the calculation of the primary energy incorrectly. But also, the detailed normalization is uncertain because available measurement data have major shortcomings. The fact that several houses indicate the use of wood for wood-burning stoves is a contributing factor to the calculations being lower. Regardless, it is recommended that in an energy calculation, there is always some margin to the requirement level regarding energy performance. This is because during a normalization it is difficult to account for all behavioral deviations from the "normal", and that there are also uncertainties about most inputs to an energy calculation. However, if using proper safety margins, energy calculations on a completed house can be just as good as a normalization of measured data when determining it´s energy performance.

    There is a need to further improve Boverket's regulation BEN, both when it comes to calculations and normalization of measured energy consumption. This is especially important regarding how to handle electricity from solar cells.

  • Hagberg, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gödselbehållare - inspektion och egenkontroll: Informationsskrift2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Verksamhetsutövare ska utföra egenkontroll av de delar i verksamheten som kan ha en negativ påverkan på miljön och människan. En verksamhetsutövare, som lagrar gödsel, ska därför se till att lagringen sker så inte avrinning eller läckage av gödsel sker. Denna skrift ska vara ett hjälpmedel att utföra enklare egenkontroller av gödselbehållar eav betong. Även reparation av gödselbehållare och förebyggande åtgärder för att förhindra skador beskrivs. I skriften avser gödselbehållare främst gödselbrunnar. Många råd kanäven appliceras på laguner och fastgödsellager av betong.

  • Hagberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gilbertsson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tammo, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Andersson, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Asp, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Projektrapport om läckage frångödselbehållare av betong: inspektion och egenkontroll2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manure storages should be inspected regularly to prevent leakage of manure due to for example damages on the pit. The legislation states that an operator is responsible forprotecting both the environment and people from harm and inconvenience. Damage onthe pit could lead to negative impact on the environment with addition of nutrients to the surroundings as well as reduced water quality. The legislation also state that amanure storage must be constructed and maintained to prevent run-off and leakage.

    In this project, a concrete expert has visited farms and inspected concrete manure storages to record common damages on the pits as well as assess causes of damages andsuggest different repair methods. The inspections have been complemented withliterature review and complied in this report.

    Damages to concrete manure storages are caused by mechanical damages or chemical attacks. The most common mechanical damage is caused by collision with the tractor or manure spreader into the pit. Chemical attacks can be different acid attacks on the concrete.

    The condition of a manure storage should be checked regularly. Taking a photo of anemerged damage is valuable when in contact with an expert to clarify the nature of thedamage as well as required repair method. Repair of damages should always be precededby consulting an expert. Experts are for example engineers working as concrete expertsas well as specialists at the manufacturers’.

    It’s important to prevent damages on the manure storages. One of the most importantfactor is to follow the manufacturer's instructions how to operate and use the storage aswell as to follow the precautions that are necessary.

    In Denmark there is a state control system for manure storages where certified inspectorsregularly visit farms to inspect manure storages. This Danish control system is brieflydescribed in this report. In addition, the Swedish environmental and work environment legislations are described based on various aspects.

    The aim of this report has been to facilitate for operators to carry out minor inspectionsand controls of manure storages. The report can also serve as a tool for inspectors andadvisors who want to learn more about leakage from concrete manure storages, damagesand repair methods.

  • Hillberg, Emil
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Flexibility needs in the future power systems2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Hillberg, Emil
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    microvsMEGA Grids: Trends Influencing the Development of the Power System2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Hillberg, Emil
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Zegers, Anthony
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria.
    Herndler, Barbara
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria.
    Wong, Steven
    Natural Resources Canada, Canada.
    Pompee, Jean
    RTE Reseau de Transport d'Electricite, France.
    Bourmaud, Jean-Yves
    RTE Reseau de Transport d'Electricite, France.
    Lehnhoff, Sebastian
    OFFIS, Germany.
    Migliavacca, Gianluigi
    RSE, Italy.
    Uhlen, Kjetil
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Oleinikova, Irina
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Pihl, Hjalmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Norström, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Persson, Mattias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Rossi, Joni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Beccuti, Giovanni
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Flexibility needsin the future power system2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Power system flexibility relates to the ability of the power system to manage changes. Solutions providing advances in flexibility are of utmost importance for the future power system. Development and deployment of innovative technologies, communication and monitoring possibilities, as well as increased interaction and information exchange, are enablers to provide holistic flexibility solutions. Furthermore, development of new methods for market design and analysis, as well as methods and procedures related to system planning and operation, will be required to utilise available flexibility to provide most value to society. However, flexibility is not a unified term and is lacking a commonly accepted definition. Several definitions of flexibility have been suggested, some of which restrict the definition of flexibility to relate to changes in supply and demand while others do not put this limitation. The flexibility term is used as an umbrella covering various needs and aspects in the power system. This situation makes it highly complex to discuss flexibility in the power system and craves for differentiation to enhance clarity. In this report, the solution has been to differentiate the flexibility term on needs, and to categorise flexibility needs in four categories:

     Flexibility for Power: - Need Description: Short term equilibrium between power supply and power demand, a system wide requirement for maintaining the frequency stability. - Main Rationale: Increased amount of intermittent, weather dependent, power supply in the generation mix. - Activation Timescale: Fractions of a second up to an hour.

     Flexibility for Energy: - Need Description: Medium to long term equilibrium between energy supply and energy demand, a system wide requirement for demand scenarios over time. - Main Rationale: Decreased amount of fuel storage-based energy supply in the generation mix.  - Activation Timescale: Hours to several years.

     Flexibility for Transfer Capacity: - Need Description: Short to medium term ability to transfer power between supply and demand, where local or regional limitations may cause bottlenecks resulting in congestion costs. - Main Rationale: Increased utilisation levels, with increased peak demands and increased peak supply. - Activation Timescale: Minutes to several hours.

     Flexibility for Voltage: - Need Description: Short term ability to keep the bus voltages within predefined limits, a local and regional requirement. - Main Rationale: Increased amount of distributed power generation in the distribution systems, resulting in bi-directional power flows and increased variance of operating scenarios. - Activation Timescale: Seconds to tens of minutes.

    Here, flexibility needs are considered from over-all system perspectives (stability, frequency and energy supply) and from more local perspectives (transfer capacities, voltage and power quality). With flexibility support considered for both operation and planning of the power system, it is required in a timescale from fractions of a second (e.g. stability and frequency support) to minutes and hours (e.g. thermal loadings and generation dispatch) to months and years (e.g. planning for seasonal adequacy and planning of new investments).

  • Hillberg, Emil
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    International Survey on adoption of resilience within the Electricity Sector2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the impact of natural and man-made hazards on critical infrastructure has resulted in governments, regulators, utilities and other interested parties elevating requirements to enhance the ability of critical infrastructure. In this context, CIGRE C4 has established a technical working group (WG) to provide guidance in an attempt to standardise the approach to adopt resilience thinking in the utility environment. The first duty of the CIGRE C4.47 WG was to conduct an international survey to understand the existing trends of adoption and application of resilience concepts in the electricity sector. This reference paper will describe key observations and unpack the initial thoughts of the WG. Further insight into the survey observations and results can be obtained from the future CIGRE Technical Brochure.

  • Hillberg, Emil
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Zegers, A.
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria.
    Migliavacca, G.
    RSE, Italy.
    Beccuti, G.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Lehnhoff, S.
    OFFIS, Germany.
    Uhlen, K.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Oleinikova, I.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Pompee, J.
    RTE Reseau de Transport d'Electricite, France.
    Bourmaud, J-Y.
    RTE Reseau de Transport d'Electricite, France.
    Pihl, Hjalmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Norström, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Rossi, Joni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Flexibility to support the future power systems2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Power system flexibility relates to the ability of the power system to manage changes. Solutions providing advances in flexibility are of utmost importance for the future power system. Development and deployment of innovative technologies, communication and monitoring possibilities, as well as increased interaction and information exchange, are enablers to provide holistic flexibility solutions. Furthermore, development of new methods for market design and analysis, as well as methods and procedures related to system planning and operation, will be required to utilise available flexibility to provide most value to society. However, flexibility is not a unified term and is lacking a commonly accepted definition. The flexibility term is used as an umbrella covering various needs and aspects in the power system. This situation makes it highly complex to discuss flexibility in the power system and craves for differentiation to enhance clarity. In this report, the solution has been to differentiate the flexibility term on needs, and to categorise flexibility needs in four categories: Flexibility for Power, Flexibility for Energy, Flexibility for Transfer Capacity, and Flexibility for Voltage. Here, flexibility needs are considered from over-all system perspectives (stability, frequency and energy supply) and from more local perspectives (transfer capacities, voltage and power quality). With flexibility support considered for both operation and planning of the power system, it is required in a timescale from fractions of a second (e.g. stability and frequency support) to minutes and hours (e.g. thermal loadings and generation dispatch) to months and years (e.g. planning for seasonal adequacy and planning of new investments). The categorisation presented in this report supports an increased understanding of the flexibility needs, to be able to identify and select the most suitable flexibility solutions.

  • Fahnestock, Jesse
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Talalasova, Elena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    P-to-Product: Analys av eventuella marknader, drivkrafter och hinder2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en leverans från arbetspaket 1 inom Vinnova projektet Återvinning av fosfor från slam till produkter.

    Analysen som följer syftar till en utvärdering av potentialen av återvunnen fosfor (P) i gödselprodukter, samt en kartläggning av eventuella drivkrafter/barriärer/hinder för en lyckad utveckling av dessa produkter. Analysen bygger på interaktioner med projektintressenter, som är bland de viktigaste aktörerna för innovationssystemets uppbyggnad. Intressenterna har bidragit bland annat genom att svara på en enkätundersökning och delta i två workshops.

    Baserade på dessa interaktioner har potentialen för gödselprodukter uppskattats genom konstruktion av ett enkelt scenario. Scenariot beskriver en utveckling av en ’grön nisch’ som ett första kundsegment och fosforn försörjs av enkla tillämpningar av tekniker för utvinning ur rejektvatten på ett fåtal stora och medelstora reningsverk. Denna tidiga utveckling är beroende på premier och/eller andra incitament, men bygger upp trovärdighet i värdekedjan och innovationssystemet. Uppskalningen sker några år senare genom en mer integrerad utvinning ur rejektvatten och förbränningsbaserade metoder, som tillämpas som svar på ett återvinningskrav för större verk. För att ta emot dessa volymer måste gödselprodukter med återvunnen fosfor sedan ta en ökande andel på massmarknaden.

    Eventuella drivkrafter och barriärer för en sådan utveckling analyseras ur ett innovationssystemsperspektiv. De viktigaste hinder är kopplade till sökriktningen, dvs brist på en tydlig nationell strategi för hantering av fosfor från återvunnen slam; marknadsformation, dvs skapande av incitament och verktyg som hjälper återvunnen fosfor att nå ut på marknaden; och legitimering, dvs acceptans för återvunnen fosfor i gödselprodukter bland nyckelintressenterna.

    Den allra viktigaste åtgärden för att få igång utvecklingen anses vara ett lagkrav på utvinning, men det är inte heller tillräckligt, då det kan leda till återvinning utan en fungerande marknad för fosforn som återvinns. Istället betonar vi vikten av att skapa en policymix som består av kompletterande styrmedel. Förslag till styrmedel, förutom ett centralt instrument som främjar utvinning, innefattar kvalitetssäkringsarbete längst värdekedjan och införandet av ekonomiskt stöd för återvunnen fosfor. Vikten av systemperspektivet och av att ta hänsyn till lokala förutsättningar betonas i sammanhanget.

  • Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Swedens path to decarbonisation through Bioenergy2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Amager Bakke EfW & Skiing facility Copenhagen: Amagerbakke-taking infrastructure into the future?2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Overview of renewable energy situation in Europe focusing on bioenergy and Waste-to-Energy2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The renewable energy has been on the agenda in the EU for a while. The Renewable Energy Directive (2009-28/EC) set the framework and the overall target of 20% renewable share in the gross final consumption for 2020. Since then the development have been monitored and the member states also have produced action plans to achieve their individual goals. As 2020 is almost here, not all countries seems likely to achieve their targets, while some others have surpassed them already. New targets have also been set for 2030 corresponding to an overall target of 32% share of renewables.

    The road to the targets differs greatly between different member states, especially regarding the use of bioenergy and waste-to-energy. The frameworks are also changing; with the wider introduction of the concept of circular economy, where the bioeconomy and defining the role of waste-to-energy are some of the challenges. The presentation will deal with the overall situation on renewable energy in EU with a focus on bioenergy and waste-to-energy and how that has been applied in selected countries.

     

  • Wärff, Christoffer
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sehlén, Robert
    Tekniska Verken i Linköping, Sweden.
    Modelling heat recovery potential from household wastewater2019In: Proceedings of 10th IWA Symposium on Modelling and Integrated Assessment, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strongly growing interest for wastewater heat recovery (WWHR) in Sweden and elsewhere, but a lack of adequate tools to determine downstream impacts due to the associated temperature drop. The heat recovery potential and associated temperature drop after heat recovery on a building level is modelled for a case study in Linköping, Sweden. The maximum temperature drop reaches 4.2 °C, with an annual recovered heat of 0.65 kWh/person/day. Wastewater temperature out from the heat exchanger was 18.0 °C in winter at the lowest. The drinking water source type can be an important factor when considering wastewater heat recovery.

  • Saagi, Ramesh
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lund University, Sweden.
    Reyes, Diego
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sehlén, Robert
    Tekniska Verken i Linköping, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Modelling heat transfer in sewer systems - towards a city-wide model for heat recovery from wastewater2019In: Proceedings of 10th IWA Symposium on Modelling and Integrated Assessment, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Majority of the energy consumed for urban water services is used to heat tap water. In order to allow for a system-wide evaluation of heat recovery possibilities from wastewater, this paper presents a one-dimensional model that can describe temperature and flow rate variations in a sewer pipe. The model is applied to successfully predict downstream wastewater temperature for sewer stretches in two Swedish cities (Linköping, Malmö). The model can be used to study various heat recovery possibilities from wastewater. It can be easily integrated with models developed to generate flow rate and temperature profiles from households as well as standard activated sludge models for modelling wastewater treatment plants so that a system-wide heat recovery study can be made possible.

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