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  • Nilsson, Astrid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Var en del av den cirkulära omställningen!: Inblickar och diskussionsfrågor om hur du kan bidra till cirkulära flöden av möbler2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Så roligt att du också är intresserad av cirkulärekonomi! Vi hoppas att du vill vara en del avomställningen och kan hitta inspiration ochtips i detta material.

    Materialet är framtaget inom det Vinnovafinansieradeprojektet ”Affärsmodellinnovationför cirkulära möbelflöden” som startades medsyfte att visa hur en bransch konkret kan ställaom till en mer cirkulär ekonomi. Målet medprojektet var att möta samhällets behov avminskat resursbehov och mer hållbar industriellutveckling, genom att ge förutsättningar fören produktion och konsumtion av offentligamöbler som var mer resurseffektiv, mindre miljöbelastandeoch samtidigt stärkte företagensinternationella konkurrenskraft.Att åstadkomma cirkulära flöden i samhället kräver nya relationer mellan aktörerna iaffärsekosystemet. Inom projektet har över 20 parter - institut, tillverkare, återförsäljare,inredningsarkitekter och kunder - samlats för att arbeta mot projektets vision: få den svenska möbelindustrin internationellt erkänd för att visa hur storskalig övergångtill cirkulär ekonomi kan genomföras i praktiken.Detta utbildningsmaterial har tagits fram med hoppet att stödja och inspirera främstkundorganisationer men också producenter, återförsäljare, inredningsarkitekteroch andra aktörer att vara en del av omställningen. Materialet baseras på ett antal“snabbfakta” från projektet, vilket är korta texter med bakgrundsinformation, verktygoch exempel kring olika teman. Här kan du läsa om cirkulär ekonomi, affärsmodeller,design och erbjudanden inom möbelbranschen; men också om olika aspekter att varaen cirkulär kund, från hur man kan inreda cirkulärt till upphandling och lagstiftning. Duhittar också en introduktion till märknings och spårbarhet för möbler, samt hur du kanberäkna och kommunicera kring cirkularitet och miljöpåverkan. Tack vare projektparternafinns många konkreta exempel att lära sig av, allt från kontorsflytt till nya cirkuläraerbjudanden.Materialet är framtaget utifrån möbler, men vi tror att exempel och diskussionsunderlagäven har bäring på många andra produktgrupper. Alla snabbfakta samt många av derapporter som refereras i materialet hittar ni på www.cirkularitet.se. Där kan ni ocksåläsa mer om projektet och dess parter.

  • Brandt, Are W
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Charging of electric cars in parking garages2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a huge increase in the number of electric cars over the last few years, as of the 1st of September 2019 a total of 247,565 electric cars were registered in Norway. There is a clear political incentive to facilitate the charging of electric cars in parking garages in Norway. This has resulted in a public inquiry regarding a proposed amendment to the Norwegian Planning and Building Act (Planning and Building Act, the Norwegian Act relating to owner-tenant sections and the Norwegian Housing Cooperatives Act). The inquiry proposes that housing cooperative owners be given the right to install chargers for electric cars. The inquiry has resulted in a consultation paper in which the uncertainties regarding fire safety during electric car charging in confined spaces were highlighted.

    The study examined whether the charging of electric cars in parking garages results in unacceptable risk of fire and, if so, what sort of measures would be required to ensure acceptable risk levels.

    One of the objectives of the study was to identify the required measures to ensure acceptable safety levels when parking and charging electric cars in parking garages.

    This was done through the use of a comprehensive evaluation of the risk of fire in electric cars while charging, the risk of fire in electrical installations in parking garages during charging and also the layout of the parking garage and the possibility for active firefighting or extinguishing using sprinklers and water mist systems.

    It also investigated the relevant measures that could be taken to prevent increased fire risk arising from the installation of charging points for electric cars.

    Conclusions

    Based on the findings from statistics and a literature review, there were no indications that charging of electric cars in parking garages would result in an increased probability of fire. The regulations regarding charging points for electric cars seem to be adequate for ensuring that the risk of fire arising due to the charging of electric cars in parking garages is acceptable. This requires that the charging points are in accordance with the regulations and that the recommendations from the car manufacturers and the producers of the charging points are followed. It is important to avoid the use of power sockets not intended for the charging of vehicles and also to avoid the use of extension leads. Based on this, the need for fixed water-based firefighting systems in parking garages is no higher for parking garages with the possibility of charging of electric cars than in other parking garages.

    There are still unknown factors with regard to both the development of fire in parking garages in general and also regarding potential fire propagation to the battery pack specifically. More knowledge is needed in order to increase the accuracy of evaluations and recommendations.

  • Brandt, Are W
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Ladding av elbil i parkeringsgarage2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Charging of electric cars in parking garages

    There has been a huge increase in the number of electric cars over the last few years, as of the 1st of September 2019 a total of 247,565 electric cars were registered in Norway. There is a clear political incentive to facilitate the charging of electric cars in parking garages in Norway. This has resulted in a public inquiry regarding a proposed amendment to the Norwegian Planning and Building Act (Planning and Building Act, the Norwegian Act relating to owner-tenant sections and the Norwegian Housing Cooperatives Act). The inquiry proposes that housing cooperative owners be given the right to install chargers for electric cars. The inquiry has resulted in a consultation paper in which the uncertainties regarding fire safety during electric car charging in confined spaces were highlighted.

    The study examined whether the charging of electric cars in parking garages results in unacceptable risk of fire and, if so, what sort of measures would be required to ensure acceptable risk levels.

    One of the objectives of the study was to identify the required measures to ensure acceptable safety levels when parking and charging electric cars in parking garages.

    This was done through the use of a comprehensive evaluation of the risk of fire in electric cars while charging, the risk of fire in electrical installations in parking garages during charging and also the layout of the parking garage and the possibility for active firefighting or extinguishing using sprinklers and water mist systems.

    It also investigated the relevant measures that could be taken to prevent increased fire risk arising from the installation of charging points for electric cars.

    Conclusions

    Based on the findings from statistics and a literature review, there were no indications that charging of electric cars in parking garages would result in an increased probability of fire. The regulations regarding charging points for electric cars seem to be adequate for ensuring that the risk of fire arising due to the charging of electric cars in parking garages is acceptable. This requires that the charging points are in accordance with the regulations and that the recommendations from the car manufacturers and the producers of the charging points are followed. It is important to avoid the use of power sockets not intended for the charging of vehicles and also to avoid the use of extension leads. Based on this, the need for fixed water-based firefighting systems in parking garages is no higher for parking garages with the possibility of charging of electric cars than in other parking garages.

    There are still unknown factors with regard to both the development of fire in parking garages in general and also regarding potential fire propagation to the battery pack specifically. More knowledge is needed in order to increase the accuracy of evaluations and recommendations.

  • Jansson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Boss, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Lundberg, Lena
    PVC Forum/IKEM, Sweden.
    Återvinning av plast från bygg- och rivningsprocesser.2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is one delivery (Work package 3) within the project CONSTRUCTIVATE focused on plastics construction materials and their recycling possibilities.Aim and objective of this part of the project was to compile the types of plastics present in construction and demolition waste (CDW) and investigate which can and should be recycled based on technical opportunities, environmental impact and economic aspects (such as market potential). Some material fractions were selected and methods to improve the recyclability and evaluate the material quality were studied. Some demonstrator products were manufactured in order to show some examples for use of the CDW material.Methods used were literature studies, market analysis, interviews, study visits and practical tests. The practical tests included material collection, manufacturing of test objects and evaluation of the product quality, for example fire resistance and mechanical strength.The conclusion is that it is technically possible and environmentally and economically justified to collect and recycle most building products in plastic, especially in construction. For installation waste, there are already collection systems for both plastic floors and plastic pipes. However, relatively little of the waste is collected in these systems. Therefore, given the great environmental benefits, it is very positive that projects have now started to develop both of these collection systems. An important prerequisite for recycling to increase is that builders and property owners begin to demand that the waste is collected. In order to have a good impact on the system, both project managers and floor contractors must take an active responsibility in this.

    During demolition and renovation, there may be obstacles if the products are joined or contaminated with other materials. Here, technology has been developed to be able to remove e.g. filler and glue from floors and we see that this development continues for more products. Another obstacle to old products may be the content of substances that are currently regulated at EU level or undesirable for other reasons. Processes are now being developed to remove these old plastic additives, but it is also important that we get a balanced discussion about the levelling between climate benefit and the content of undesirable chemicals in the recycling of long-life products. If recycling can be done safely, this should be given priority because the climate benefits are so great. Another obstacle to really old plastic products may be that they have started to break down and have poorer properties. Here it is important to develop chemical recycling as a complement to the mechanical in order to be able to recycle all plastic products from the construction sector.In construction, packaging plastic is present in significant quantities and it is therefore an interesting fraction to collect and recycle to new plastic packaging or plastic bags, or alternatively to wooden plastic composites. As a result of CONSTRUCTIVATE, a six-month-long project has started to create a circular system for packaging plastic from the construction industry, Cirem.Practical experiments were made to investigate the use of recycled plastic pipes for new pipes (cable protection pipes and optocable pipes) and for plastic profiles (nail strip and © RISE Research Institutes of Swedenjoint strip). Plastic packaging and construction plastic from two construction sites were collected, and recycled into wood fiber composites (VPC materials). The noise reduction plank produced from this material showed good mechanical properties.Washing tests with old PVC-flooring succeeded in dissolving and washing away glue residue from these floorings. This is important because then even glued floors can be recycled to new floor mats. In 2019, Tarkett launched a method to remove glue and putty on an industrial scale and began to recycle floors from demolition/renovation.As a result of CONSTRUCTIVATE, new projects have been started to study certain products in more detail. CiREM will develop a collection and recycling system for building foil and packaging plastic. Several players in the construction industry participate. The Repipe demo project will demonstrate a collection and recycling system for plastic pipes in southern Sweden. About 30 players in the industry participate. Both projects are funded by Re: Source. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency is financing a development of the recycling system GBR Floor Recycling to increase the recycling of plastic floors in the Swedish market.

  • Östergren, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Holtz, Emma
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Food waste prevention strategies in global food chains: Conclusions and recommendations from the SIANI Expert group on food waste 20162016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Around 1/3 of edible food produced is wasted and when converted into calories this losscorresponds to 1/4 of the nutritional energy from food. Reducing food waste is a “triplewin” activity: as it saves money since less resources are needed, as less waste is equal tothe opportunity to feed more people in the future, and furthermore reduced wastedecreases the pressure on climate, water, and land resources. The need to reduce foodwaste is also a part sustainability goals (SDG12.3). The success in reducing food waste ishighly dependent on an effective communication across the supply chain since the truecause of food waste many times is found in other parts of the supply chain than it where itactually happens. Such circumstances are particularly challenging in global food chainsin particular food chains starting in developing countries ending in high income countriesdue to the geographic distance and the involvement of many actors.The aim of this project, coordinated by the “SIANI” Expert group on food wastepreventions strategies in global food chains” was to gather current knowledge andexperience, as well as best practice on how to manage food chains starting in developingcountries ending in high income countries with focus on vegetables and fresh fruits. Thiswas done by taking a multi-stakeholder perspective, by a survey and a workshop, toidentify knowledge gaps and opportunities:The specific questions raised in the project were:• How can our way of managing global food chains support the farmer in lowincome countries?• How can best practice in high income countries (e.g. Sweden) decrease the foodwaste of imported food by e.g. appropriate labelling, appropriate businessmodels, consumer information etc.?• How can best practice in our (Swedish) food chains be transferred to low incomecountries, improving the local food chain to the benefits of the local actors? Sinceglobal and local food markets are communicating vessels the hypothesis is that awell-functioning local food chain will lead to less overall food waste and moreincome to the farmers.The gap analysis shows that there are large knowledge gaps on how the supply chainsfunction, how much food is wasted and the causes of the food waste. The survey carriedout also shows that there is a demand for political action, and resources are needed inorder to make a change:

    − To facilitate and enable actions directed towards minimising food waste,recourses are needed for: education and training, technology implementation,better infrastructure and communication in the food system. This is importantwhen trading with developing countries and poor farmers with low educationalbackground.− The transparency, particularly in long supply chains, is problematic asinformation seems to be lost the longer the chain is; this is especially challengingwhen working with developing countries where the knowledge gap and theability to be a strong partner compared to the large industries and retailers ischallenging. Other aspects of transparency that needs to be addressed is thesharing information on e.g. campaigns, and other activities having an influenceon the demand along the food supply chain.− The survey shows that there is much knowledge in place that is not shared alongthe supply chain. Round table discussions and knowledge sharing within different sectors may be a first step in making use of current know-how, and to set up anagenda on needs and how to collaborate− To facilitate and enable actions directed toward minimising food waste, recoursesare needed for: education and training of all those in the early stages of the supplychain, technology implementation, better infrastructure and communication in thefood system. This is important when trading with developing countries and poorfarmers with low educational background.

    Much research is ongoing relating to sustainable food production without considering theresearch question being central for reducing food waste. Food waste research still suffersfrom that it is a quite new research area that is under development. Research focus onglobal food chains is currently focusing on quantification of food waste, impact ofinformation activities and awareness raising activities and is focused on the situation inhigh income countries. Addressing food waste in global food chains as defined in thisreport shows that research adapted to the needs in the local food chains in developingcountries are needed. For example how can a farmer make use of IT in a simple way(almost every farmer has a mobile phone), are there packing solution that can be usedtropical fruits so that a desired even quality can be delivered, how to handle the waste thatstill happens in the best way (feed, new product, biogas etc.) and how to take care of theinedible parts (leaves, stems, peels etc.). Process technologies suitable for small scaleapplications, e.g. by processing fruits having a low quality it can be preserved and sold asexported as processed fruit instead of being unsold or sold to the local market to a muchlower price.The Swedish resource base and research network could contribute to more sustainableand fair food chains with less waste by sharing their knowledge and take actionsaccording to:• Swedish Universities and Institutes could take a role in educating students andhosting visiting researchers to cover the knowledge gaps.• NGOs could take the important role as facilitators and educators in developingcountries on site.• The actors in the food supply chain can advance their position by dialogue,collaboration and information sharing; also, by hosting trainees from developingcountries learning Swedish best practice and serve as food “waste ambassadors”when they return back home.• Researcher and innovators could contribute to technology development,particularly simple, robust technological solutions to be used in developingcountries.• The key is however that Swedish actors we collaborate (researchers, innovators,food processors, retailers, authorities and policy makers) and share ourknowledge and experience in an organised way.

    The actual practical solutions for reducing food waste need to build on the collectedexperience and the knowledge carried by the actors in the supply chains and theresearchers working with problems relating to food from different perspectives. Abottom-up approach is needed being supported by appropriate policy intervention.Finally, although the field is hampered by the unclear ownership of the question and lackof collaboration, there is always a” working window” for each actor in the supply chainwhere improvements can take place right now. Numerous of examples and ideas areprovided in the report and its annex.

  • Backlund, Elin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Implementering och resultat av Göteborgsmodellen för mindre matsvinn2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gothenburg model for less food waste - a model forreducing food waste in municipal kitchensThe Swedish law states that all school children shall be served a nutritious, free schoollunch every day meaning that about 3 million meals are served per day in the municipalsector in Sweden. By developing efficient working models aimed for decreasing the foodwaste climate impact and costs can be significantly reduced.“The Gothenburg model for less food waste” is a practical tool describing simple andappropriate working routines aimed for reducing food waste in municipal kitchens. Thetool is designed to be used by the staff working in the kitchens. This report elucidatesdata and experiences from the implementation of “The Gothenburg model for less foodwaste”.Gothenburg City has a large meal organization with about 520 kitchens covering preschools,schools and elderly care settings. Through the “Gothenburg model for less foodwaste”, the City of Gothenburg reduced its food waste (serving and kitchen waste) in itskitchens by 50%, from about 30 g/serving to 15 g/serving, in two years, from January2017 to December 2018. At the end of the project, 95% of the kitchens measured theirfood waste. Together, these kitchens served over 80,000 lunches a day. Based on themeasurements in 2017–2018, serving waste accounted for about 80% of food waste,while 20% was kitchen waste.Based on the collected data on food waste targets for different categories of kitchenscould be formulated for serving and kitchen waste. The values suggested for schools were8 - 10 g/serving for production kitchens, 10-15 g/serving for reception kitchens and 30 -35 g/serving for serving kitchens. The corresponding values for pre-schools were 5 - 8g/serving for production kitchens, 10 - 15 g/serving for reception kitchens and 25 - 30g/serving for serving kitchens.The project has contributed to long-term effects by introducing a systematic approachfor reducing food waste in municipal kitchens. By  working according to the model, thekitchens have established procedures for reducing kitchen and serving waste as well asidentified structural problems that must be addressed in  the future for decreasing thefood waste further.Collected data for a time span up to 5 years  show that it takes time establish routines andlong-lasting changes. Generally, food waste levels decrease quite fast in the beginningdue to the easy wins and then level off gradually.

  • Olofsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Jiang, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Ukaj, Kujtim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Zawadowska, Aleksandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RO5 ro-ro space fire ventilation: Summary report2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the final report from the research project RO5. The report summarises the results from the research project RO5. The report consists of summary from a literature study, from computer simulations and from model scale tests. This, together with results from full scale demonstrational test (documented only in this report) leads to the conceptional solutions and recommendations presented in this report. The project focused aim was to investigate the effects of ventilation on fire development in ro-ro spaces with different ventilation conditions.

    Important conclusion from the literature study is that ventilation is primary to prevent flammable and other harmful gases from accumulating in the spaces, and the mechanical ventilation is not designed to be functional in case of fire. It is a must for the crew to gain knowledge about the ventilation system (i.e. fans, inlets and outlets) and its capacity from tests and experiences. It is important that guidelines, rules and routines are established for using the ventilation system in typical conditions (loading/unloading etc.) and that it is documented and passed on to provide guidance for the ship's crew.

    One of the most important conclusions from the model scale tests and numerical simulation study is that distinct limitation is found for 4% opening of space sides (natural ventilation) for the fire self-extinction to occur. This is dependent on the height and shape of the opening. For the mechanical ventilation case, in case of fire, stopping the ventilation is the best way to reduce the fire intensity. The tests show that mechanical ventilation is vital for the fire to continue to burn. The recommendations aim at giving advise concerning ventilation in case of fire and how to deal with the ventilation at different ro-ro spaces.

  • Gestrelius, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Kjellin, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Backman, Magnus
    Swedish Transport Association, Sweden.
    Slutrapport for Grafiska Prognostidtabeller2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver det arbete som utfördes i projektet Grafiska Prognostidtabeller (GRAPRO). Projektets mål var att undersöka om optimering kan vara ett stöd för kapacitetsanalytiker när en tidtabell ska konstrueras utifrån prognostiserade trafikdata. Rapporten inleds med en genomgång av analysmetoder som Trafikverket använder för att bedöma vilken trafik en viss infrastrukturutveckling kan hantera, och beskriver hur optimering passar in bland dessa metoder. Sedan presenteras den metodutveckling som gjorts inom projektet, och databehov och tillgång diskuteras. Metoden testas på ett exempelfall med infrastrukturförändringar i Skåne, och de resulterande tidtabellerna analyseras. Under projektet gång, och under arbetet med exempelfallet, identifierades ett flertal områden där ytterligare utveckling behövs för att den presenterade metoden ska kunna användas av en kapacitetsanalytiker, och rapporten avslutas med att dessa utvecklingsbehov diskuteras.

  • Olofsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Jiang, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Rakovic, Alen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Model scale tests of a ro-ro space fire ventilation2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report contains results from a parametric study using model scale tests with natural and mechanical ventilation on ro-ro ship. Two types of fuels were used, heptane liquid fire and wood cribs. The heptane fire was used for the test series using natural ventilation and wood cribs were used in the test series using mechanical ventilation. The tests were carried out in a scale model 1:8 made of steel covered with 6 mm thick gypsum boards. The size of the model was 14.4 m long, 2.8 m wide and 0.6 m high. For natural ventilation different opening sizes (0, 1, 4 and 10% of the area of the walls along the sides) and shapes were located at different hull sides and sill heights. For mechanical ventilation both inlets supply, and outlets extracts were attached to the model and external fans combined with opening or closing of one end side. The air change per hours (ACPH) were set at 0, 10 and 20.

  • Olofsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Ranudd, Elin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    RO5 ro-ro space fire ventilation: Literature study2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A fire in a ro-ro space can grow intensely large and statistics show that the number of fire accidents in these spaces are not decreasing over the last years. The different types of ro-ro spaces defined in SOLAS has different requirements for fire extinguishing systems, natural and mechanical ventilation and fire detection system. RO5 aims to clarify how the ro-ro space ventilation affects the development and management of a fire and to recommend appropriate fire protection measures for ro-ro space with different ventilation conditions. This report gives the reader the background of the project with the review of literature together with review of accident investigation reports, inventory of ventilation design and a documentation of the performed hazard identification workshop that was held with suppliers, authorities, crew and ship owners.

    The final report of RO5 will present overall project result from tests, computer simulations including recommendations and concept solutions.

    The accident investigation review shows that the most common way to operate the ventilation system in case of a fire onboard was to shut it down. From the workshop the comments from crew was the interest to learn more how to use the ventilation system onboard. Densely stowed cars, which made it hard for the fire fighters to approach the fire, was mentioned as a problem in 7/10 accident reports with closed ro-ro spaces and in 3/4 reports with open ro-ro spaces.

    The intention with the SOLAS regulations is to structurally divide passenger ships so that a fire cannot spread, and that fire extinguishing system or horizontal divisions should exist to control a fire in the space of origin. While on the other hand the principle of large ro-ro spaces is an important part of the maritime industry. Some of the accident investigations reveal that the large spaces such as open ro-ro spaces make it difficult to meet the functional requirements of the regulations and that open ro-ro spaces may be prohibited. The same conclusion is made from the two zone fire simulations conducted in the project. The simulations show that both increased natural ventilation and increased mechanical ventilation results in larger fire development. The conducted parameter simulation study shows that if natural ventilation is nevertheless required, the openings should, in terms of fire development, preferably be constructed as wide as possible and with as low sill and soffit height as possible.

  • Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Willstrand, OlaRISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Proceeding from 5th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles - FIVE 2018: October 3-4, 2018, Borås Sweden2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    These proceedings include papers and extended abstracts from the 5th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles – FIVE 2018, held in Borås, Sweden October 3-4, 2018. The proceedings include an overview of research and regulatory actions coupled to state-of-the-art knowledge on fire related issues in vehicles, such as passenger cars, buses, coaches, trucks and trains.

    Fires in transport systems are a challenge for fire experts. New fuels that are efficient and environmentally friendly are rapidly being introduced together with sophisticated new technology such as e.g. fuel cells and high energy density batteries. This rapid development, however, introduces new fire risks not considered previously and we risk getting a situation where we do not have enough knowledge to tackle them. In this context FIVE represents an important forum for discussion of the fire problem and for exchange of ideas.

    Fire protection in road, rail, air, and sea transport is based on international regulations since vehicles cross borders and the safety requirements must be the same between countries. Therefore, understanding of safety and regulations must be developed internationally and the FIVE-conference has a significant role to play as a place to exchange knowledge.

    FIVE attracts researchers, operators, manufacturers, regulators and other key stakeholders. Of particular value is the mix of expertise and the international participation in the conference. The conference is unique as it includes fires in different vehicles. It is not confined to bus fires or train fires but includes them both, naturally since fire problems are often similar regardless of type of vehicle. This means that for example solutions for trains are useful for fire problems in buses and vice versa.

    In the proceedings you will find papers on the fire problem, alternative fuel and electric vehicles, fire investigations and case studies and finally fire mitigation. We are grateful to the renowned researchers and engineers presenting their work and to the keynote speakers setting the scene. We sincerely thank the scientific committee for their expert work in selecting papers for the conference.

     

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