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  • Warneryd, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wilson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Karltorp, Kersti
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Boork, Magdalena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Norrblom, Hans Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Affärsmodeller för solcellsinstallation i flerbostadshus och kommersiella fastigheter – en handbok2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Priset på solceller har stadigt minskat under senare år, samtidigt som effektiviteten har ökat. Alltfler, både privatpersoner och företag, väljer att investera i solcellsanläggningar. Drivkrafterna för att genomföra en installation är många och varierande, men vägen mot beslut är inte alltid enkel. Denna handbok riktar sig främst mot fastighetsägare till bostadsfastigheter och lokalfastigheter samt bostadsrättsföreningar. Syftet är att stödja dessa aktörsgrupper inför beslut om en eventuell solcellsinstallation. Innehållet i handboken bygger på resultat från workshops och intervjuer med representanter från de olika grupperna.

    Handboken beskriver möjliga affärsmodeller för solel uppdelat på de olika aktörsgrupperna, men även såväl ekonomiska som icke-ekonomiska nyttor med att installera en solelanläggning. Tre huvudtyper av affärsmodell presenteras:

    - Fastighetsägaren investerar och äger solcellsanläggningen.

    - Anläggningen leasas från ett leasingbolag, med eller utan avbetalning.

    - Fastighetsägaren upplåter takytor till en annan aktör som investerar i solceller.

    Affärsmodellsbeskrivningarna inkluderar ägarförhållanden, lönsamhet, hur den producerade solelen kan användas samt för- och nackdelar med modellen. Styrmedel i form av regler, stöd och ersättningar kan dessutom påverka både anläggningens storlek och dess lönsamhet. Aktuella regler beskrivs i handboken. Eftersom solelmarknaden och regelverk är i ständig förändring bör man alltid kontrollera vad som gäller inför en installation. I slutet på

    handboken finns därför tips på vidare läsning och relevanta myndigheter.

  • Arıs, Ahmet
    et al.
    Istanbul Technical University, Turkey.
    Oktug, Sema F.
    Istanbul Technical University, Turkey.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Security of internet of things for a reliable internet of services2018In: Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10768), 2018, p. 337-370Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) consists of resource-constrained devices (e.g., sensors and actuators) which form low power and lossy networks to connect to the Internet. With billions of devices deployed in various environments, IoT is one of the main building blocks of future Internet of Services (IoS). Limited power, processing, storage and radio dictate extremely efficient usage of these resources to achieve high reliability and availability in IoS. Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed DoS (DDoS) attacks aim to misuse the resources and cause interruptions, delays, losses and degrade the offered services in IoT. DoS attacks are clearly threats for availability and reliability of IoT, and thus of IoS. For highly reliable and available IoS, such attacks have to be prevented, detected or mitigated autonomously. In this study, we propose a comprehensive investigation of Internet of Things security for reliable Internet of Services. We review the characteristics of IoT environments, cryptography-based security mechanisms and D/DoS attacks targeting IoT networks. In addition to these, we extensively analyze the intrusion detection and mitigation mechanisms proposed for IoT and evaluate them from various points of view. Lastly, we consider and discuss the open issues yet to be researched for more reliable and available IoT and IoS. © The Author(s) 2018.

  • Molinder, Roger
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Processum.
    Almqvist, Jonna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Processum.
    Extractives in theScandinavian pulp and paperindustry : Current and possible future applications2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest industry is one of Sweden’s most important business sectors. Thanks to its biobased rawmaterials and products, the forest industry plays a key role in the development towards asustainable, circular economy. To meet market needs, and to drive the growth of the circulareconomy, the forest industry is continually developing its processes and products. It is seeking to useits raw material, the forest, as efficiently as possible and is constantly seeking to improve quality andincorporate new functions into materials and products.Pulp and paper makes up the largest part of the forest industry, followed by sawn wood productsand products made from paper and paperboard. 3.9 million tons of pulp and 10.1 million tons ofpaper were produced in Sweden in 2016.The pulp and paper industry uses stem wood as its raw material. Stem wood consists of cellulose,hemicellulose, lignin, and extractives. Cellulose and hemicellulose are separated in the pulpingprocess and the economically most important components in wood. Lignin and extractives areusually burned to provide the mill with heat and power, but the use/needs has changed over timedue to development of more energy efficient mills. Today lignin is extracted from the black liquor forexternal use, while extractives are fractionated and used for production of a wide range of productssuch as, biodiesel, adhesives, and chemical intermediates.The extractives make up between 3 and 5 weight-% of the wood and consists of a wide range ofcompounds. The majority of those compounds are fatty acids such as oleic- and linoleic acid androsin acids, such as abietic- and pimaric acid. The remaining compounds are commonly referred to as“neutrals” and are dominated by β-sitosterol. The extractives in Scots pine for example, consist of 70% fatty acids, 20 % rosin acids and 5 % neutrals.Today, the extractives are separated at the pulp and paper mills during the regeneration of cookingchemicals into a product called crude tall oil (CTO). 2.5 million metric tons of CTO is producedglobally with 80% of the production situated in North America and Scandinavia. 1.3 million tons isproduced in North America and 600 000 tons is produced in Scandinavia. 2.0 million metric tons iscurrently refined globally, while the rest is used internally by the mills for the production of heat andpower.CTO is currently refined into a range of products which can be divided up into (i) chemicalintermediates, (ii) biodiesel, and (iii) tall oil pitch. The chemical intermediates are mostly used for theproduction of adhesives, while the biodiesel is used as a transport fuel, and the tall oil pitch is usedfor production of heat and power.To meet market needs, and to drive the growth of the circular economy, extractives could potentiallybe used for the production of other products, either through new refinement routes of CTO or novelextraction and separation methods from the raw material. In order to identify opportunities for theproduction of other extractives based products, the extractives value chain must first be mapped.Second, refinement routes as well as extraction and separation methods suitable for isolation andprocessing of valuable compounds must be identified.

  • Aadland, Reidun C.
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway.
    Dziuba, Carter J.
    University of Calgary, Canada.
    Heggset, Ellinor B.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Torsæter, Ole
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway.
    Holt, Thorleif
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Gates, Ian D.
    University of Calgary, Canada.
    Bryant, Steven L.
    University of Calgary, Canada.
    Identification of nanocellulose retention characteristics in porous media2018In: Nanomaterials, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 8, no 7, article id 547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of nanotechnology to the petroleum industry has sparked recent interest in increasing oil recovery, while reducing environmental impact. Nanocellulose is an emerging nanoparticle that is derived from trees or waste stream from wood and fiber industries. Thus, it is taken from a renewable and sustainable source, and could therefore serve as a good alternative to current Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technologies. However, before nanocellulose can be applied as an EOR technique, further understanding of its transport behavior and retention in porous media is required. The research documented in this paper examines retention mechanisms that occur during nanocellulose transport. In a series of experiments, nanocellulose particles dispersed in brine were injected into sandpacks and Berea sandstone cores. The resulting retention and permeability reduction were measured. The experimental parameters that were varied include sand grain size, nanocellulose type, salinity, and flow rate. Under low salinity conditions, the dominant retention mechanism was adsorption and when salinity was increased, the dominant retention mechanism shifted towards log-jamming. Retention and permeability reduction increased as grain size decreased, which results from increased straining of nanocellulose aggregates. In addition, each type of nanocellulose was found to have significantly different transport properties. Experiments with Berea sandstone cores indicate that some pore volume was inaccessible to the nanocellulose. As a general trend, the larger the size of aggregates in bulk solution, the greater the observed retention and permeability reduction. Salinity was found to be the most important parameter affecting transport. Increased salinity caused additional aggregation, which led to increased straining and filter cake formation. Higher flow rates were found to reduce retention and permeability reduction. Increased velocity was accompanied by an increase in shear, which is believed to promote breakdown of nanocellulose aggregates. © 2018 by the authors.

  • Bjurling, Björn
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    DOIT WP4 Final Report on Planning and Optimization2018Report (Other academic)
  • Bellini, Roseanna
    et al.
    Newcastle University, Sweden.
    Olivier, Patrick
    Newcastle University, Sweden.
    Comber, Rob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    "That really pushes my buttons": Designing bullying and harassment training for the Workplace2018In: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace bullying and harassment have been identified as two of the most concerning silent and unseen occupational hazards of the 21st century. The design of bespoke training addressing domain-specific job roles and relations presents a particular challenge. Using the concept of data-in-place where data is understood as being bound and produced by a particular place, this paper describes how locally-situated accounts can be used to engage employees in workplacespecific training seminars. Using higher education as a case study, we describe a four-stage design process for future training efforts: (1) in-depth interviews for further understanding of bullying and harassment; (2) design of digital probes for capturing contextual data; (3) probe deployment and subsequent data analysis; (4) data-driven discussion-based seminars. We outline the potential for digital probes in promoting the denormalization of toxic workplace cultures, considerations for novel sensitive data governance models, and the discussion of data-in-place's temporal dimension.

  • Hannes, Dave
    et al.
    Kiwa Inspecta Technology, Sweden.
    Svensson, Thomas
    TS Ingenjörsstatistik, Sweden.
    Anderson, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Dahlberg, Magnus
    Kiwa Inspecta Technology, Sweden.
    Experimental study of weld fatigue strength reduction for a stainless steel piping component2018In: Procedia Engineering, 2018, p. 383-391Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental mean curve and a design fatigue curve corresponding to 95% survival probability were derived from realistic fatigue experiments on a non-welded water pressurized piping component with primarily focus on high cycle fatigue. The components were subjected to a synthetic variable amplitude bending deformation. Comparison with the results obtained for a similar piping component with a circumferential butt weld allowed the determination of an experimental fatigue strength reduction factor. Comparison with the fatigue procedure and design curve in ASME BPVC Section III allowed to quantify its conservatism with regards to accounting for the presence of a weldment and more generally transferability. © 2017 The Authors.

  • Elmquist, Lennart
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SWECAST.
    Carlsson, Raul
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SWECAST.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Cast iron components with intelligence2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes a project with the aim to develop communicating and functional cast iron components in smart systems. The concept is based on sensors integrated into cast iron components; this will influence not only the component but also the casting process. Among the technical challenges is how to choose a sensor solution that cost-efficiently and with minimal environmental impact can be integrated into the component during the casting process, and especially without being damaged during mold filling and the high pouring temperature. Another challenge is how the iron will interact and interfere with sensor signals and whether an insulating intermediate material is needed or not. Integrating the sensors into the casting makes sensors a natural part of the component, which in turn can lead to more resource efficient designs, increased value added for the casting sector, and a general access to different possibilities of digitalization. The integrated sensors can be used for effective control and monitoring of components when in service and give information about for example how the component is used and what conditions it is exposed to. In other words, the component can tell when maintenance is needed or in worst cases, indicate that something is wrong before a failure will happen. Important measurands can e.g. be elongation, shear, temperature and vibration. Different combinations of sensor materials and insulating materials and their interaction with the cast iron have been investigated. It is shown how the interaction at the interface affects the microstructure and consequently the properties of the cast iron. In the case of insulating materials it is e.g. shown how air gaps are formed and in the case of sensor materials it is shown how a diffusion zone is formed and how this zone depends on the sensor material. How this diffusion zone affects the microstructure is discussed.

  • Elmquist, Lennart
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SWECAST.
    Brehmer, Aron
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SWECAST.
    Schmidt, Pål
    Volvo GTT, Sweden.
    Israelsson, Björn
    SKF Mekan AB, Sweden.
    Residual stresses in cast iron components – Simulated results verified by experimental measurements2018In: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2018, p. 326-333Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to investigate how accurately residual stresses can be simulated in a cast component. The reason why this is important is that a simulation that also considers residual stresses can be used to design cast components more weight- and cost-efficient. The verification was done by comparing simulated results with physical measurements on cylinders made of ductile iron. The measurements were performed with two methods, sectioning and holedrilling. These methods were applied on both as-cast and machined cylinders. The simulations were based on process data from casting trials and material data from the simulation software database. The material data for the heat conductivity of the molding sand was fitted to get a good conformity between measured and simulated temperatures. This was done to ensure that the residual stress simulation used a relevant temperature history. It turned out that the simulation was in good agreement with results from the sectioning measurements of the axial stress while results from the hole-drilling measurements were contradictive. These results were contradictive for both as-cast and machined cylinders. It can therefore be concluded that residual stresses measured by the sectioning method resulted in good conformity with the simulated σz stresses. It was also concluded that the feeders, acting as extra heat sources, affects residual stresses locally and contributes to differences in stresses beneath the feeders, compared to corresponding areas between the feeders. It was also found that the resolution of the mesh needs to be finer to take into account changes in the stresses with increments in depth when using the hole drilling method.

  • Ashtari, E.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Semere, D.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Melander, Arne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Löveborn, D.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Hedegård, J.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Knowledge Platform for Resistance Spot Welding2018In: Procedia CIRP, 2018, p. 1166-1171Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual weldability testing and prototyping significantly reduces the time and cost needed in product and process development. However, implementation is often inhibited due to lack of accurate information, support tools and methods to capture all knowledge elements from across the development process. Furthermore, results from previously conducted tests are often unavailable due to absence of knowledge reusability schemes and enabling tools. In this paper, a knowledge platform development is presented which has been implemented in industrial cases from Swedish automotive industries. The platform is demonstrated to be a key element in enabling effective virtual testing and prototyping. © 2018 The Authors.

  • Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Digital assembly instruction system design with green lean perspective-Case study from building module industry2018In: Procedia CIRP, 2018, p. 762-767Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manual "easy jobs" need to be efficient, standardised and quality assured to remain competitive against automated production. Digitalised work instructions offer an opportunity to support standardisation and quality assurance for manual work tasks in industry. Inspired by axiomatic design this study aims at selecting design of lean methods and equipment for digital assembly instructions and standardised work. Literature regarding standardised work and green lean production system is applied in a case study. Interviews, observations and green lean equipment design methods are used to conclude system requirements of a digital work instruction-system designed for assembly of modular buildings at Husmuttern AB. © 2018 The Authors.

  • Hammersberg, Peter
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hamberg, Kenneth
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Borgström, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SWECAST.
    Lindkvist, Joachim
    Volvo Powertrain, Sweden.
    Björkegren, Lars Erik
    LEB Casting Technology, Sweden.
    Variation of tensile properties of high silicon ductile iron2018In: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2018, p. 280-287Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The casting processes are characterized by complex relationships between predictors and responses. It is the fundamental understanding of these complex relationships that often involves hundreds of factors, which improves quality without losing productivity and raising cost. In this work, cast solid solution strengthened ferritic spheroidal graphite irons GJS-500-14 and GJS-600-10 (EN 1563:2012) have been evaluated. These materials offer stronger components with good machinability owing to their even hardness properties. In this case the predictors are chemical composition, gating layout, foundry set-up, testing procedure and equipment etc. and the responses are the tensile properties (Rp0.2, Rm, A5). Here 200 tensile specimens compiled from industrial foundry melts from over 30 years of research have created a state-of-the-art platform for statistical engineering in order to perform Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) and data visualization. This statistical platform has provided new insight on how foundries should treat complex relationships between predictors and responses in order to identify sources of variation and interaction effects.

  • Werke, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Wretland, Anders
    GKN Aerospace AB.
    Ottosson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Machens, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Semere, Daniel
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Geometric distortion analysis using a combination of the contour method and machining simulation2018In: Procedia CIRP, 2018, p. 1481-1486Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During machining the material removal releases residual stresses introduced by previous process steps. This causes geometric machining distortions and thereby high rejection rates and costs. By simulating the process chain it is possible to predict this type of distortions. However, this requires advanced material models and accurate process- and material data for the individual processes. In order to simplify the modelling efforts a methodology that combines the contour method with machining simulation is proposed. The methodology is validated for an aerospace component using deep layer removal X-ray diffraction and CMM measurements. The methodology will improve possibilities to reduce machining distortions. © 2018 The Authors.

  • Fourlakidis, Vassilios
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SWECAST.
    Diaconu, Lucian V.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Diószegi, Attila
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Strength prediction of lamellar graphite iron: From Griffith’s to hall-petch modified equation2018In: Materials Science Forum, 2018, Vol. 925, p. 272-279Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) is used as the main property for the characterization of lamellar graphite iron (LGI) alloys under static loads. The main models found in the literature for predicting UTS of pearlitic lamellar graphite iron are based on either regression analysis on experimental data or on modified Griffith or Hall-Petch equation. In pearlitic lamellar graphite iron the primary austenite dendritic network, transformed to pearlite, reinforces the bulk material while the distance between those pearlite grains, defines the maximum continuous defect size in the bulk material. Recently the novel parameter of the Diameter of Interdendritic Space has been used to express the flow length in a modified Griffith equation for the prediction of the UTS in LGI. Nevertheless this model neglects the strengthening effect of the pearlite lamellar spacing within the perlite grains. A model based on modified Hall-Petch equation was developed in this work. The model considers the effect of both microstructure parameters and covers a broad spectrum of microstructure sizes typical for complex shape castings with various wall thicknesses.

  • Mandova, H.
    et al.
    University of Leeds, UK ; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Leduc, S.
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Wang, C.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS. Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Wetterlund, E.
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria ; Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Patrizio, P.
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Gale, W.
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Kraxner, F.
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Possibilities for CO2 emission reduction using biomass in European integrated steel plants2018In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 115, p. 231-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron and steel plants producing steel via the blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF) route constitute among the largest single point CO2 emitters within the European Union (EU). As the iron ore reduction process in the blast furnace is fully dependent on carbon mainly supplied by coal and coke, bioenergy is the only renewable that presents a possibility for their partial substitution. Using the BeWhere model, this work optimised the mobilization and use of biomass resources within the EU in order to identify the opportunities that bioenergy can bring to the 30 operating BF-BOF plants. The results demonstrate competition for the available biomass resources within existing industries and economically unappealing prices of the bio-based fuels. A carbon dioxide price of 60 € t−1 is required to substitute 20% of the CO2 emissions from the fossil fuels use, while a price of 140 € t−1 is needed to reach the maximum potential of 42%. The possibility to use organic wastes to produce hydrochar would not enhance the maximum emission reduction potential, but it would broaden the available feedstock during the low levels of substitution. The scope for bioenergy integration is different for each plant and so consideration of its deployment should be treated individually. Therefore, the EU-ETS (Emission Trading System) may not be the best policy tool for bioenergy as an emission reduction strategy for the iron and steel industry, as it does not differentiate between the opportunities across the different steel plants and creates additional costs for the already struggling European steel industry. © 2018 The Authors

  • Van Den Berg, F. D.
    et al.
    Tata Steel, The Netherland.
    Kok, P. J. J.
    Tata Steel, The Netherland.
    Yang, H.
    Tata Steel, The Netherland.
    Aarnts, M. P.
    Tata Steel, The Netherland.
    Meilland, P.
    ArcelorMittal Global Research, France.
    Kebe, T.
    thyssenkrupp Steel Europe, Germany.
    Stolzenberg, M.
    Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Germany.
    Krix, D.
    Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Germany.
    Zhu, W.
    University of Manchester, UK .
    Peyton, A. J.
    University of Manchester, UK .
    Martinez-De-Guerenu, A.
    CEIT, Spain.
    Gutierrez, I.
    CEIT, Spain.
    Jorge-Badiola, D.
    CEIT, Spain.
    Malmström, M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Volker, A.
    TNO, Netherlands.
    Duijster, A.
    TNO, Netherlands.
    Wirdelius, H.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Boström, A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mocci, C.
    Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy.
    Vannucci, M.
    Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy.
    Colla, V.
    Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy.
    Davis, C.
    University of Warwick, UK.
    Zhou, L.
    University of Warwick, UK.
    Schmidt, R.
    ArcelorMittal Eisenhüttenstadt, Germany.
    Labbé, S.
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Reboud, C.
    CEA Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France.
    Skarlatos, A.
    CEA Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France.
    Leconte, V.
    ALTAIR Engineering France, France.
    Lombard, P.
    ALTAIR Engineering France, France.
    Product uniformity control - A research collaboration of european steel industries to non-destructive evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties2018In: Stud. Appl. Electromagn. Mech., 2018, p. 120-129Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In steel manufacturing, the conventional method to determine the mechanical properties and microstructure is by offline, destructive (lab-)characterisation of sample material that is typically taken from the head or the tail of the coil. Since coils can be up to 7 km long, the samples are not always representative for the main coil body. Also, the time delay (typically a few days) between the actual production and the availability of the characterisation results implies that these results cannot be exploited for real-time adaptation of the process settings. Information about the microstructure and material properties can also be obtained from electromagnetic (EM) and ultrasonic (US) parameters, which can be measured in real-time, non-destructively, and over the full length of the steel strip product. With the aim to improve the consistency in product quality by use of inline EM and US measurements, a European project called "Product Uniformity Control" (PUC) has been set up as a broad collaboration between 4 major European Steel Manufacturers and 10 Universities / Research institutes. Using both numerical simulations and experimental characterisations, we study the inline measured EM and US parameters in regard of the microstructural and mechanical properties. In this way, we aim to establish an improved understanding of their mutual relationships, and to apply this knowledge in existing and new nondestructive evaluation techniques. In this paper, the concerted approach of modelling and experimental validation will be addressed, and results of this work will be shown in combination with inline measured data.

  • Kaijalainen, Antti
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Javaheri, Vahid
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lindell, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Porter, David A.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Development of crystallographic texture under plane and shear strain in ultrahigh-strength strip steels2018In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2018, Vol. 375, no 1, article id 012026Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of centerline and subsurface microstructures on the crystallographic texture of three 8 mm thick low-alloyed hot-rolled and direct-quenched ultrahigh-strength strip steels with yield strengths in the range 800 - 1100 MPa has been investigated. Detailed microstructural features were studied using LCSM, FESEM, FESEM-EBSD. In addition textures and crystallographic features were analyzed using Matlab combined with MTEX software. Rolling to lower finish rolling temperatures increased austenite pancaking leading to the formation of ferritic/granular bainitic and the upper bainitic microstructures at the subsurface. In addition, increased austenite pancaking was found to increase the intensities of ∼{554}<225>α, ∼{112}<110>α and ∼{112}<131>α texture components at the centerline and ∼{112}<111>α and ∼{110}<112>α/<111>α texture components in the surface layers, especially in upper bainitic microstructures. Parent austenite reconstruction shows that crystallographic texture at the centerline derived from {112}<111>γ and {110}<112>γ and the subsurface the shear texture components derived from the {112}<110>γ and {111}<112>γ components, as expected. The Matlab reconstruction code was found to work well for martensitic and upper bainitic morphologies even with the highly pancaked prior austenite structure. However, it was less precise for granular bainite and ferrite.

  • Heidari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Fire Testing Centre, France ; Imperial College London, UK.
    Robert, Fabienne
    Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Rein, Guillermo
    Imperial College London, UK.
    Probabilistic Study of the Resistance of a Simply-Supported Reinforced Concrete Slab According to Eurocode Parametric Fire2018In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the application of a simple probabilistic methodology to determine the reliability of a structural element exposed to fire when designed following Eurocode 1-1-2 (EC1). Eurocodes are being used extensively within the European Union in the design of many buildings and structures. Here, the methodology is applied to a simply-supported, reinforced concrete slab 180 mm thick, with a standard load bearing fire resistance of 90 min. The slab is subjected to a fire in an office compartment of 420 m2 floor area and 4 m height. Temperature time curves are produced using the EC1 parametric fire curve, which assumes uniform temperature and a uniform burning condition for the fire. Heat transfer calculations identify the plausible worst case scenarios in terms of maximum rebar temperature. We found that a ventilation-controlled fire with opening factor 0.02 m1/2 results in a maximum rebar temperature of 448°C after 102 min of fire exposure. Sensitivity analyses to the main parameters in the EC1 fire curves and in the EC1 heat transfer calculations are performed using a one-at-a-time (OAT) method. The failure probability is then calculated for a series of input parameters using the Monte Carlo method. The results show that this slab has a 0.3% probability of failure when the compartment is designed with all layers of safety in place (detection and sprinkler systems, safe access route, and fire fighting devices are available). Unavailability of sprinkler systems results in a 1% probability of failure. When both sprinkler system and detection are not available in the building, the probability of failure is 8%. This novel study conducts for the first time a probabilistic calculation using the EC1 parametric curve, helping engineers to identify the most critical design fires and the probabilistic resistance assumed in EC1. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • Kvist, Patric
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rasmuson, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Using fluorescent probes and FRAP to investigate macromolecule diffusion in steam-exploded wood2018In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion of fluorescently labeled dextran of varying molecular weight in wood pretreated by steam explosion was studied with a confocal microscope. The steam explosion experiments were conducted at relatively mild conditions relevant for materials biorefinery at a pressure of 14 bars for 10 min. The method of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) was used to perform diffusion measurements locally in the wood microstructure. It was found that the FRAP methodology can be used to observe differences in the diffusion coefficient based on localization in the microstructure, i.e., earlywood, latewood, and cell wall. Microscopic changes due to steam explosion were seen to increase diffusion of the smaller 3-kDa dextran diffusion probe in the earlywood, while the latewood structure was not affected in any significant way. Macroscopic changes to the structure in the form of ruptures due to the steam explosion pretreatment were observed to increase the rate of diffusion for the larger 40-kDa dextran probe.

  • Sentilles, Severine
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Ciccozzi, Frederico
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    PROMOpedia: A web-content management-based encyclopedia of software property models2018In: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, 2018, p. 45-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way software properties are defined, described, and measured, is different across different domains. When addressing these properties, several challenges commonly emerge, among which: synonymity, polysemy, paronymy, incomplete and inconsistent specification. In this paper we introduce PROMOpedia, an online encyclopedia, to tackle these challenges. PROMOpedia uses a web-content management system coupled with crowd-sourcing of scientific contents related to properties and their evaluation methods. The core concepts of PROMOpedia are built upon a property models ontology previously proposed by the authors, and is intended to target the needs of both researchers and practitioners. Website: http://www.mrtc.mdh.se/promopedia/ © 2018 Authors.

  • Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gogou, Eleni
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Taoukis, Petros
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Effect of microwave assisted blanching on the ascorbic acid oxidase inactivation and vitamin C degradation in frozen mangoes2018In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 48, p. 248-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of microwave assisted and conventional water blanching of mango (Mangifera indica) under two different blanching scenarios, High Temperature Short Time (HTST) and Low Temperature Long Time (LTLT) on ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) inactivation and on vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid & dehydroascorbic acid) retention were comparatively studied. The impact of alternative blanching processes and subsequent frozen storage on enzymatic inactivation and vitamin C was kinetically modelled. Both water and microwave HTST as well as LTLT microwave treatments of mango pieces showed high degree of AAO inactivation. An approximately 30% residual AAO activity was observed and was described through a first order fractional conversion model. Microwave assisted blanching led to higher retention of total vitamin C in both LTLT and HTST treatments. In LTLT water blanching, vitamin C loss was mainly caused by mass transfer phenomena rather than temperature degradation, while after HTST treatments the decrease of total vitamin C content seemed to be mainly related to thermal degradation than due to the leakage of the nutrients in the blanching medium. Further inactivation of the thermostable fraction of AAO and degradation of total vitamin C were observed after frozen storage for 130 days at −18.63 ± 0.48 °C.

  • Woodhouse, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Pénicaud, Caroline
    Université Paris-Saclay, France.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Sustainability checklist in support of the design of food processing2018In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, E-ISSN 1614-2373, Vol. 16, p. 110-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To source food ingredients produced by best practice, reducing food loss in the processing line and implementation of new technologies are some examples of changes in the management in the food and drink sector that may offer advantages from a sustainability perspective. There are several tools and methods for evaluating sustainability for a food processing technology but often specific methodological knowledge is essential and many companies may not be able to carry out such a study due to time constraints and lack of data. The aim of this paper is to provide a tool with the format of a qualitative sustainability checklist, based on existing Life Cycle Assessment theory. The checklist is devoted to the design and adaptation of processing in the food industry to clarify the potential hot spots in new process design and is focused on environmental sustainability, although other aspects were conferred as well to demonstrate its potential. To identify the potential of this kind of checklist, it was tested by four food companies. The participant feedback was in general positive. The companies highlighted the benefits of creating awareness of sustainability issues within the company and providing a good overview without data collection. From a scientific point of view, the approach can help to overcome several challenges in sustainability assessment in the agri-food sector, especially some modeling issues and spatio-temporal resolution. © 2018 The Authors

  • Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia ; University of Tasmania, Australia .
    Hobday, Alistair J
    CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia ; University of Tasmania, Australia .
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Smith, Anthony DM
    CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia ; University of Tasmania, Australia .
    Green, Bridget S
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Gibbs, Mark
    Shaping sustainability of seafood from capture fisheries integrating the perspectives of supply chain stakeholders through combining systems analysis tools2018In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, article id fsy081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood from capture fisheries can be assessed in many ways and for different purposes, with sometimes divergent views on what characterizes “sustainable use”. Here we use two systems analysis tools—Ecological Risk Assessment for Effects of Fishing (ERAEF) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)—over the historical development of the Australian Patagonian toothfish fishery at Heard and McDonald Islands since the start in 1997. We find that ecological risks have been systematically identified in the management process using ERAEF, and with time have been mitigated, resulting in a lower risk fishery from an ecological impact perspective. LCA inventory data from the industry shows that fuel use per kilo has increased over the history of the fishery. Our results suggest that LCA and ERAEF may provide contrasting and complementary perspectives on sustainability and reveal trade-offs when used in combination. Incorporation of LCA perspectives in assessing impacts of fishing may facilitate refinement of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such as improved integration of the different perspectives of supply chain stakeholders.

  • Raza, Mohsin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden ; TPC Components AB, Sweden.
    Svenningsson, Roger
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SWECAST.
    Irwin, Mark
    TPC Components AB, Sweden.
    Fägerström, Björn
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Jarfors, Anders E. W.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Effects of Process Related Variations on Fillablity Simulation of Thin-Walled IN718 Structures2018In: International Journal of metalcasting, ISSN 1939-5981, E-ISSN 2163-3193, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 543-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation tools have improved significantly and are now capable of accurately predicting mould filling behavior. The quality of prediction is highly dependent on material properties and set-up of boundary conditions for the simulation. In this work material properties were measured and casting conditions were analyzed to accurately replicate the casting process in simulation. The sensitivity of the predictions to minor process variations commonly found in foundries was evaluated by comparing simulation and cast samples. The observed discrepancies between simulation and cast samples were evaluated and discussed in terms of their dependency on process variations. It was concluded that the simulation set-up was capable of reasonable predictions and could replicate the asymmetry of the filling however did not accurately predict the absolute value of the unfilled area. It was discovered that asymmetric flow due to variations in the orientation of the casting mould during filling could have greater influence on the predictions than the actual variation in fill time. The quality of simulation is dependent on equipment and techniques used in the foundry as well as the metallurgical model to simulate the process. © 2017, The Author(s).

  • Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Hansson, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Mälardalen University.
    Thane, Henrik
    Safety Integrity AB.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University.
    Inadequate Risk Analysis Might Jeopardize The Functional Safety of Modern Systems2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early 90s, researchers began to focus on security as an important property to address in combination with safety. Over the years, researchers have proposed approaches to harmonize activities within the safety and security disciplines. Despite the academic efforts to identify interdependencies and to propose combined approaches for safety and security, there is still a lack of integration between safety and security practices in the industrial context, as they have separate standards and independent processes often addressed and assessed by different organizational teams and authorities. Specifically, security concerns are generally not covered in any detail in safety standards potentially resulting in successfully safety-certified systems that still are open for security threats from e.g., malicious intents from internal and external personnel and hackers that may jeopardize safety. In recent years security has again received an increasing attention of being an important issue also in safety assurance, as the open interconnected nature of emerging systems makes them susceptible to security threats at a much higher degree than existing more confined products.This article presents initial ideas on how to extend safety work to include aspects of security during the context establishment and initial risk assessment procedures. The ambition of our proposal is to improve safety and increase efficiency and effectiveness of the safety work within the frames of the current safety standards, i.e., raised security awareness in compliance with the current safety standards. We believe that our proposal is useful to raise the security awareness in industrial contexts, although it is not a complete harmonization of safety and security disciplines, as it merely provides applicable guidance to increase security awareness in a safety context.

  • Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Metrology and sustainability accounting standards2018In: The New Algorithm: Setting a new market standardfor financial systems, Stockholm, 2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Bjurling, Björn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    DOIT WP4 report on planning and optimization2017Report (Other academic)
  • Rahimian, Fatemeh
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Payberah, Amir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    DOIT WP3 report on predictive modeling and data insights: Version 5.02017Report (Other academic)
  • Boano, Carlo Alberto
    et al.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    Forster, Anna
    Gnawali, Omprakash
    Jacob, Romain
    Kim, Hyung-Sin
    Landsiedel, Olaf
    Marfievici, Ramona
    Picco, Gian Pietro
    Vilajosana, Xavier
    Watteyne, Thomas
    Zimmerling, Marco
    IoTBench: Towards a Benchmark for Low-power Wireless Networking2018Conference paper (Refereed)
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